Carbon is specifically noteworthy facet in living systems. The chemistry the carbon, necessary chemistry, is a complete study depend itself. We will certainly touch on several highlights that will certainly be useful in prospering sections.

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The Uniqueness the Carbon

The carbon atom has four valence (outermost) electrons. Because of this unique configuration, the is much easier for the carbon atom to share its four electrons with another atom or atoms 보다 to shed or gain 4 electrons. Due to the fact that each carbon is identical, they all have four valence electrons, therefore they can quickly bond with other carbon atom to type long chain or rings. In fact, a carbon atom have the right to bond with an additional carbon atom 2 or 3 times to make dual and triple covalent bonds in between two carbon atoms. Long chains of carbon atoms with twin and triple bonds are quite common in biology.

Carbon"s propensity toward covalent bonding v itself generates 3 unique characteristics that develop a large array that compounds, consisting of those vital to construct and support life:


Carbon come carbon (C-C) bonds type the backbone of all biomolecules and also can encompass thousands of C-C bonds.

The single bond the connects carbon atoms to carbon atoms is rather strong, for this reason the subsequent long chains and ring structures are not fragile. The carbon-carbon covalent bonding pattern satisfies the Octet rule, do carbon compounds unwilling come react. Because carbon has four valence electrons and needs eight to satisfy the Octet rule, it deserve to bond with up to four added atoms, creating numerous compound possibilities.

Functional Groups

In the most basic terms, the reactive part of any kind of compound is dubbed the sensible group. Usually a functional team is a collection of atoms the operates as one reactive unit and is additionally the part of the molecule affiliated in a chemical reaction. Conversely, carbon-to-carbon bonds space nonreactive, the instability of the functional groups drives chemistry reactions that involve stable carbon-based compounds. For simplicity and reference, three functional teams are presented:

Amine is determined by a central nitrogen atom that has actually three bonds, generally to hydrogen atoms. Amine groups kind the basis for amino acids, which once bonded together form proteins. A Carboxylic team (COOH) is attached come the long carbon chains that kind fatty acid molecules, which room a kind of lipid lipids. Hydroxyl teams (OH) are an extremely reactive. They are a ingredient of alcohols, such as ethanol, the alcoholic component of adult beverages. The oxygen-hydrogen combination is distinctive to this practical group and also easily identify it as an alcohol.

Dehydration Synthesis and Polymer Formation


A hydration reaction is the reverse of a dehydration reaction in the water serves together a reactant to separation apart huge poly-molecules.

Polymers are tiny molecules that have the right to be bonded together to develop larger molecules. Complicated carbohydrates room made native small an easy sugars joined together, and giant protein molecule are simply a collection of smaller amino mountain molecules bonded together. The prefix poly identify this form of molecule addition. For instance, polysaccharides are huge carbohydrates composed of lot of saccharide (sugar) units.

The chemical reaction that powers polymer development is recognized by several names, including dehydration synthesis and also condensation reaction. Nevertheless of the name, the molecules are joined by bonding sites produced when a positively charged hydrogen ion (H+) is shed from one molecule and a negatively fee hydroxide (OH-) ion is shed from a bordering molecule. The H+ and also OH- combine to type water. So a dehydration synthesis join two smaller sized units in addition to the ns of one water molecule.

Excerpted indigenous The complete Idiot"s overview to biological 2004 by valley E. Moulton, Ed.D.. All legal rights reserved including the ideal of reproduction in whole or in component in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member that Penguin team (USA) Inc.

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