ZEUS to be the King the the Gods and the god of the sky, weather, law and also order, destiny and also fate, and kingship.He was shown as a regal, mature male with a sturdy figure and also dark beard. His usual characteristics were a lightning bolt, a royal sceptre and an eagle.
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Zeus was the youngest child of the Titans Kronos (Cronus) and also Rheia. Kronos devoured each of his children as they were born, however Zeus escaped this fate as soon as his mother spirited him away, handing the Titan a stone substitute covering in swaddling cloth. More>>
The god was elevated in secrecy on mountain Dikte in Krete (Crete) whereby he was nursed by nymphs ~ above the milk the the goat Amaltheia and also guarded by the warrior Kouretes (Curetes) who drowned out the sound of his crying with their shield-clashing battle-dance. More>>
Upon resulting age Zeus recruited the goddess Metis to his cause. She served the Titan Kronos a magical draft which brought about him to disgorge the young gods he had devoured. More>>
Zeus liberated the six giant-sons of heaven from the pit the Tartaros. In gratitude the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) equipped him v lightning-bolts and the Hekatonkheires (Hundred-Handed) aided that in his attack on the Titanes v volleys that thrown boulders. Kronos and also his allies were at some point defeated and also banished to a jail beneath the earth. More>>
After the fall of the Titan-gods, Zeus and also his brothers drew lots to divide ascendancy of the cosmos - Zeus winner the heavens, Poseidon the sea and also Haides the underworld.
Zeus devoured the pregnant goddess Metis once an oracle revealed that her boy was destined to change him as King that the Gods. Your child, Athena, was subsequently born in his belly and birthed directly from his head. More>>
Zeus married his sister Hera, queen the the heavens, ~ seducing her in the guise of a cuckoo-bird. Yet this union of ever before quarreling sky-god and sky-goddess proved not to be a enhance made in heaven! More>>
Prometheus do the race of man and gave them fire steal from the god of heaven. Zeus punished this action by bespeak the creation of the an initial woman, Pandora, and sent her to earth with a vessel complete of problem to afflict mankind. Prometheus self was arrested and chained come a hill with an eagle collection to torment him. More>>
The at an early stage generations of man descended into wickedness and corruption and also Zeus made decision to wipe them native the confront of the earth with a great deluge. One virtuous couple, Deukalion and Pyrrha, to be spared and after that allowed come repopulate the people with the spreading of stones which transformed right into men. More>>
The earth-goddess Gaia (Gaea), angry by the imprisonment of the Titanes, urged the Giants to climb up against the gods of Olympos. Lock laid siege to the heavenly fortress yet Zeus set low your king and also many others through his fatal lightning-bolts. More>>
Gaia produced one more giant, Typhoeus, the most monstrous that his type and set him upon Olympos. The remainder of the god fled in horror and also Zeus self was defeated in combat through the monster tearing the sinews indigenous his four rendering that helpless. Pan later stole earlier the god"s stamin and, restored, Zeus beat the large in a rematch and bound that beneath mount Etna. More>>
Zeus seduced plenty of mortal woman including Leda in the guise of a swan, Europa together a bull, Danae together a shower head of gold, Alkmene together her own husband, Kallisto (Callisto) together the goddess Artemis, and also Antiope as a satyr. More>>
The god"s favourite mortal kid was Herakles (Heracles) whom he supported throughout his trials and also eventually welcomed to Olympos together a god.
Zeus punished the worst villians of myth for your impiety and also crimes versus the gods including Tantalos that stole ambrosia from heaven, Lykaon (Lycaon) that served human being flesh to the gods, Ixion that attempted come rape Zeus" wife the goddess Hera, and Salmoneus who tried come imitate Zeus and steal the praise that to be due the gods.
Many various other myths are in-depth over the following pages.
SYMBOLS & ATTRIBUTES
Zeus" many distinctive attribute was his stylized lightning bolt which that wielded in his hand choose a javelin. His other features included a imperial sceptre, a throne, an eagle, a miniature Nike (winged goddess of victory), and the aigis (a goat-skin arm-guard). The god was generally clothed in a long robe (chiton) and cloak (himation) however was sometimes portrayed nude. He was often crowned through a wreath the olive leaves.
Below are some examples of his qualities as illustrated in ancient Greek art:-
1. Lightning bolt; 2. Lightning bolt; 3. Throne; 4. Wreath the olive-leaves.
SACRED animals & PLANTS
Zeus" sacred animals were the eagle and also the bull. In legend he abducted the youth Ganymede in the shape of one eagle and the maiden Europa in the guise the a bull.His spiritual plants to be the evergreen holm oak and the olive tree. At the old oracle of Dodona Zeus" priests were influenced by the rustling the oak-leaves, and also at the Olympic games victors to be crowned with a wreath of olive-leaves choose from the god"s spiritual grove.
Below are examples of the god"s pets as depicted in old Greek art and also photos of his sacred plants:-
1. Eagle; 2. Bull; 3. Holm oak; 4. Olive tree.
RETINUE that ZEUS
Befitting his function as King of the Gods, Zeus was attended by a large complement of lesser divinities.
His throne to be guarded by four winged spirits, 2 male and two female, named Kratos (Strength), Zelos (Rivalry), Nike (Victory) and Bia (Force). Kratos and Bia functioned as muscular enforcers and also were tasked with jobs such as the apprehension and imprisonment the the Titan Prometheus. Nike drive Zeus" chariot and often accompanied the in miniature form as other of a divine familiar.
The god Hermes to be Zeus" personal herald that acted together diplomat, envoy and general certified dealer of the god"s will.
His messenger was Iris, the winged goddess that the rainbow, who merely relayed message verbatim and also delivered commands to the various other gods.
Zeus" high councillor Themis, goddess the law and order, to be seated beside his throne. She to be attended by their 6 daughters the Moirai (Fates) and also the Horai (Seasons). This goddesses were collectively responsible because that the orderly functioning of the cosmos. Themis was likewise charged v summoning all of the god to assembly in the courtyard of Zeus.
The god"s virgin sister Hestia likewise resided in his palace where she tended the ever-burning, magnificent hearth-fire in the facility of his hall.
Metis, goddess of wisdom, was possibly his many unusual attendant. Zeus swallowed her whole to stop a prophesy and also she take it up residence in his belly. The old Greeks believed the belly quite than the mind was the seat of thought and also emotion, and so by subsuming her he successfully implanted wise counsel in his mind. She continued to exist in some form or other within the god, even to the degree of birthing Athena there and also equipping her through armour and also weapons prior to her second birth from Zeus" head.
Ganymede and the goddess Hebe were Zeus" cupbearers who served ambrosia and nectar at the feasts the the gods.The winged Harpyiai (Harpies), recognized as the "hounds of Zeus", were crude creatures tasked by the god with carrying off or harrassing mortals.Pegasos, the winged horse, carried Zeus" lightning bolts, and four other immortal horses drew his chariot v the sky.
ZEUS PAGES on betterworld2016.org
This site contains a full of 8 pages relenten the god, including general descriptions, mythology, and cult. The content is outlined in the index of Zeus Pages (left shaft or below).
FAMILY that ZEUS
KRONOS & RHEA (Homer Iliad 15.187, Hesiod Theogony 453, Apollodorus 1.4, Diodorus Siculus 5.68.1, et al)
See family members of Zeus
Zeus was a kid of the Titans Kronos (Cronus) and Rheia and a nephew of Ouranos (the Sky) and also Gaia (the Earth). He was a brother of the gods Poseidon, Haides, Hera, Demeter and Hestia.Zeus married his sister, the sky-goddess Hera, and they had three kids - Ares, Hebe and Eileithyia.His other magnificent consorts included: his sister Demeter mother of Persephone; his cousins Metis mom of Athena, Leto mommy of Apollon and Leto, and also Maia mother of Hermes; his aunts Dione mommy of Aphrodite, Themis mommy of the Moirai (Fates) and Horai (Seasons), and also Mnemosyne mother of the Mousai (Muses); and also his descendant Semele mother of Dionysos.He was also the father of innumerable mortal kings and also heroes, the most famous of which were Perseus, Herakles (Heracles), and Helene of Troy. More>>
Below space two graphics illustrating Zeus" core household tree, the an initial with names transliterated from the Greek and the 2nd with the common English spellings:-
A much an ext detailed family members tree because that Zeus including every one of his immortal lovers and children can be found here (transliterated Greek version) and here (English surname version).
ZEUS (Zeus), the best of the Olympian gods, and also the dad of gods and men, to be a boy of Cronos and Rhea, a brothers of Poseidon, Hades (Pluto), Hestia, Demeter, Hera, and also at the exact same time married to his sister Hera. As soon as Zeus and his brother distributed among themselves the government of the civilization by lot, Poseidon obtained the sea, Hades the lower world, and also Zeus the heavens and the upper regions, but the earth came to be common to all (Hom. Il. xv. 187, &c., i. 528, ii. 111; Virg. Aen. iv. 372).
Later mythologers enumerate three Zeus in your genealogies 2 Arcadian ones and one Cretan; and also tne first is stated to it is in a boy of Aether, the second of Coelus, and the third of Saturnus (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 21). This accounts for the truth that part writers use the name of the king of sky who sends dew, rain, snow, thunder, and also lightning for heaven itself in its physics sense. (Horat. Carm. i. 1. 25 ; Virg. Georg. ii. 419.)
According to the Homeric account Zeus, prefer the other Olympian gods, dwelt on mount Olympus in Thessaly, which was thought to pass through with the lofty summit right into heaven chin (Il. i. 221, &c., 354, 609, xxi. 438). He is called the father of gods and men (i. 514, v. 33; comp. Aeschyl. Sept. 512), the many high and an effective among the immortals, whom all others obey (Il. xix. 258, viii. 10, &c.). He is the highest possible ruler, who v his counsel manages every thing (i. 175, viii. 22), the founder the kingly power, that law and of order, whence Dice, Themis and also Nemesis space his aides (i. 238, ii. 205, ix. 99, xvi. 387; comp. Hes. Op. Et D. 36 ; Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 79).
For the same reason he protects the assembly the the people (agoraios), the meetings that the board of directors (boulaios), and as he presides end the totality state, so also over every house and family (herkeios, Od. xxii. 335; comp. Ov. Ib. 285). He additionally watched over the sanctity of the oath (horkios), the legislation of hospitality (xenios), and also protected suppliants (hikesios, Od. ix. 270; comp. Paus. V. 24. § 2). That avenged those that were wronged, and punished those who had committed a crime, for he watched the doings and also sufferings of all men (epopsios, Od. xiii. 213; comp. Apollon. Rhod. I. 1123).
He was further the original source of all prophetic power, former whom all prophetic signs and also sounds behavior (panomphaios, Il. viii. 250 ; comp. Aeschyl. Eum. 19 ; Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 69). Every thing good as well as bad comes native Zeus, and according to his own selection he assigns their great or angry lot come mortals (Od. iv. 237, vi. 188, ix. 552, Il. x. 71, xvii. 632, &c.), and also fate itself to be subordinate to him.
He is equipped with thunder and lightning, and the shiver of his aegis to produce storm and also tempest (Il. xvii. 593) : a number of epithets the Zeus in the Homeric poems explain him as the thunderer, the gatherer that clouds, and the like.
He was married come Hera, by who he had actually two sons, Ares and also Hephaestus, and also one daughter, Hebe (Il. i. 585, v. 896, Od. xi. 604). Hera occasionally acts together an live independence divinity, she is ambitious and also rebels against her lord, but she is nonetheless inferior to him, and also is punished for she opposition (Il. xv. 17, &c., xix. 95, &c.) ; his amours with various other goddesses or mortal women space not hidden from her, despite they usually rouse her jealousy and also revenge (Il. xiv. 317). Throughout the Trojan war, Zeus, at the inquiry of Thetis, favoured the Trojans, until Agamemnon made great the not correct he had actually done come Achilles.
Zeus, no doubt, was initially a god that a section of nature, whence the oak through its eatable fruit and also the fertile doves were sacred to him at Dodona and in Arcadia (hence also rain, storms, and the periods were related to as his work, and also hence the Cretan story of milk, honey, and also cornucopia) ; however in the Homeric poems, this primitive personality of a personification of specific powers of nature is already effaced to some extent, and also the god shows up as a political and also national divinity, together the king and father that men, together the founder and also protector that all organizations hallowed by law, custom. Or religion.
Hesiod (Theog. 116, &c.) additionally calls Zeus the child of Cronos and Rhea , and also the brothers of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Cronos swallowed his children immediately after their birth, but when Rhea to be near providing birth to Zeus, she used to Uranus and Ge for advice as to how the child might be saved. Before the hour of birth came, Uranus and Ge sent out Rhea to Lyctos in Crete, requesting she to carry up her boy there. Rhea as necessary concealed her infant in a cave of mountain Aegaeon, and gave come Cronos a rock wrapped increase in cloth, which that swallowed in the belief that it was his son. Other legacies state that Zeus to be born and brought up on mount Dicte or Ida (also the Trojan Ida), Ithome in Messenia, Thebes in Boeotia, Aegion in Achaia, or Olenos in Aetolia. Follow to the common account, however, Zeus flourished up in Crete. Together Rhea is sometimes figured out with Ge, Zeus is additionally called a boy of Ge. (Aeschyl. Suppl. 901.)
In the meantime Cronos through a cunning maker of Ge or Metis was made to carry up the kids he had swallowed, and very first of every the stone, which was afterwards set up through Zeus at Delphi. The young god now ceded the Cyclopes indigenous the bonds through which they had actually been fettered by Cronos, and also they in your gratitude noted him v thunder and lightning. ~ above the advice the Ge. Zeus additionally liberated the hundred-armed Gigantes, Briareos, Cottus, and also Gyes, that they could assist that in his fight versus the Titans. (Apollod. I. 2. § 1; Hes. Theog. 617, &c.) The Titans were conquered and also shut increase in Tartarus (Theog. 717), whereby they to be henceforth guarded through the Hecatoncheires. Thereupon Tartarus and also Ge begot Typhoeus, who began a fearful struggle with Zeus, but was conquered. (Theog. 820, &c.)
Zeus now obtained the dominance of the world, and also chose Metis for his wife. (Theog. 881, &c.) once she was pregnant v Athena, he took the son out of she body and also concealed that in his own, on the advice that Uranus and Ge, who told him that thereby he would retain the prominence of the world. Because that Metis had given birth to a son, this kid (so fate had ordained it) would have gained the sovereignty. ~ this Zeus, by his 2nd wife Themis. Came to be the dad of the Horae and also Moerae; of the Charites through Eurynome, that Persephone by Demeter, that the Muses by Mnemosyne, that Apollo and Artemis through Leto, and also of Hebe, Ares, and Eileithyia through Hera. Athena was born the end of the head that Zeus; if Hera, ~ above the other hand, provided birth to Hephaestus without the co-operation that Zeus. (Theog. 8866, &c.)
The household of the Cronidae appropriately embraces the twelve an excellent gods of Olympus, Zeus (the head of castle all), Poseidon, Apollo, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and also Artemis. This twelve Olympian gods, who in some locations were venerated as a body, as at Athens (Thueyd. Vi. 54), to be recognised not only by the Greeks, however were embraced also through the Romans, who, in particular, figured out their Jupiter v the Greek Zeus.
In surveying the different local traditions around Zeus, it would seem that initially there were several, at least three, divinities which in your respective nations were supreme, but which in the course of time came to be united in the psychic of tile people into one an excellent national divinity. Us may as necessary speak of one Arcadian, Dodonaean, Cretan, and also a national Hellenic Zeus.
1. The Arcadian Zeus (Zeus Lukaios) to be born, follow to the legends that the country, in Arcadia, one of two people on mount Parrhasion (Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 7, 10), or in a ar of mount Lycaeon, i m sorry was dubbed Cretea. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 1 ; Callim. l. C. 14.) that was lugged up over there by the nymphs Theisoa, Neda, and also Hagno; the first of these offered her surname to one Arcadian town, the 2nd to a river, and the third to a well. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 2, &c., 47. § 2; comp. Callim. l. C. 33.) Lycaon, a son of Pelasgus, who built the first and most old town the Lycosura, referred to as Zeus Lycaeus, and erected a temple and instituted the festival the the Lyceia in honour the him; that further available to that bloody sacrifices, and among others his own son, in an effect of which he to be metamorphosed right into a wolf (lukos; Paus. Viii. 2. § 1, 38. § 1; Callim. l. C. 4 ; Ov. Met. i. 218.) nobody was enabled to get in the sanctuary of Zeus Lycaeus on mountain Lycaeon, and there was a id that, if any one entered it, he passed away within twelve months after, and that in the neither human beings nor animals cast a shadow. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 5; comp. Schol. ad Callim. Hymn. In Jov. 13.) Those who gotten in it purposely were stoned come death, unless they escaped by flight; and also those who had got in by accident were sent to Eleutherae. (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 39.) ~ above the highest possible summit the Lycaeon, there was an altar the Zeus, in prior of which, in the direction of the east, over there were two pillars bearing gold eagles. The sacrifices offered there were retained secret. (Paus. Viii. 38. § 5; Callim. l. C. 68.)
2. The Dodonaean Zeus (Zeus Dôdônaios or Pelasgikos) possessed the most old oracle in Greece, in ~ Dodona in Epeirus, close to mount Tomarus (Tmarus or Tomurus), indigenous which he obtained his name. (Hom. Il. ii. 750, xvi. 233; Herod. Ii. 52 ; Paus. I. 17. § 5; Strab. V. P. 338, vi. P. 504; Virg. Eclog. viii. 44.) in ~ Dodona Zeus was greatly a prophetic god, and also the oak tree was spiritual to him ; however there also he was said to have been reared through if the Dodonaean nymphs (Hyades; Schol. ad Hom. Il. xviii. 486; Hygin. Fab. 182 ; Ov. Fast. vi. 711, Met. iii. 314). Respecting the Dodonaean oracle of Zeus, watch Dict. The Ant. S. V. Oraculum.
3. The Cretan Zeus (Zeus Diktaios or Krêtagenês). Us have currently given the account of him which is consisted of in the Theogony that Hesiod. The is the god, to who Rhea, concealed from Cronos, gave birth in a cave of mountain Dicte, and also whom she entrusted to the Curetes and the nymphs Adrasteia and also Ida, the daughters the Melisseus. They fed him with milk that the goat Amaltheia, and the bees that the mountain provided him with honey. (Apollod. I. 1. § 6; Callim. l. C. ; Diod. V. 70; comp. Athen. Xi. 70; Ov. Fast. v. 115.) Crete is called the island or nurse that the good Zeus, and his prayer there appears to have actually been really ancient. (Virg. Aen. iii. 104; Dionys. Perieg. 501.) amongst the areas in the island i beg your pardon were particularly sacred to the god, us must mention the district around mount Ida, especially Cnosus, which was stated to have actually been developed by the Curetes, and also where Minos had actually ruled and conversed through Zeus (Hom. Od. xix. 172; Plat. de Leg. i. 1; Diod. V. 70; Strab. X. P. 730; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 21); Gortyn, whereby the god, in the type of a bull, landed once he had lugged off Europa from Phoenicia, and also where that was worshipped under the castle of Hecatombaeus (Hesych. s. V.) ; additional the towns around mount Dicte, as Lyctos (Hes. Theog. 477), Praesos, Hierapytna, Biennos, Eleuthernae and also Oaxus. (Comp. Hoeck, Creta, i. P. 160, &c., 339, &c.)
4. The national Hellenic Zeus, close to whose holy place at Olympia in Elis, the good national panegyris was celebrated every 5th year. There too Zeus was pertained to as the father and king the gods and men, and also as the can be fried god the the Hellenic nation, His frostbite there was executed by Pheidias, a couple of years before the outbreak that the Peloponnesian war, the majestic and also sublime idea for this statue having actually been argued to the artist by the indigenous of Homer, Il. i. 527. (Comp. Hygin. Fab. 223.) according to the legacies of Elis, Cronos to be the an initial ruler the the country, and in the golden e there to be a temple specialized to him at Olympia. Rhea, that is additional said, entrusted the infant Zeus to the Idaean Dactyls, who were likewise called Curetes, and also had come from mountain Ida in Crete to Elis. Heracles, one of them, completed with his brother Dactyls in a footrace, and also adorned the victor through a wreath of olive. In this manner he is said to have founded the Olympian games, and also Zeus come have completed with Cronos for the kingdom that Elis. (Paus. V. 7. § 4.)
The Greek and Latin poets provide to Zeus one immense variety of epithets and surnames, i m sorry are derived partly from the locations where he to be worshipped, and also partly indigenous his powers and also functions. That was venerated throughout Greece and also her colonies, so that it would certainly be useless and virtually impossible come enumerate every the places.
The eagle, the oak, and also the summits of hills were sacred to him, and also his sacrifices generally consisted of goats, bulls and cows. (Hom. Il. ii. 403; Aristot. Ethic. v. 10, ix. 2; Virg. Aen. iii. 21, ix. 627.) His usual features are, the sceptre, eagle, thunderbolt, and a number of win in his hand, and also sometimes additionally a cornucopia. The Olympian Zeus periodically wears a wreath the olive, and also the Dodonaean Zeus a wreath of oak leaves.
In works of art Zeus is usually represented together the omnipotent father and king of gods and also men, according to the idea which had actually been embodied in the statue that the Olympian Zeus by Pheidias.
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Source: dictionary of Greek and also Roman Biography and Mythology.
CLASSICAL literary works QUOTES
HYMNS come ZEUS
Homeric chant 23 come Cronides (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to fourth B.C.) :"To
Orphic chant 15 to Zeus (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. To second A.D.) :"O Zeus, much-honoured, Zeus supremely great, to thee our holy rites we consecrate, our prayers and also expiations, king divine, because that all points to produce with ease with mind is thine. For this reason mother earth (gaia) and also mountains ede high proceed from thee, the deep and all in ~ the sky. Kronion (Cronion) king, descending native above, magnanimous, commanding, sceptred Zeus; all-parent, principle and end that all, whose strength almighty shakes this earthly ball; also nature trembles at thy mighty nod, loud-sounding, armed with lightning, thundering god. Resource of abundance, wash and clean king, O various-formed, from whom all natures spring; propitious hear my prayer, provide blameless health, with tranquility divine, and also necessary wealth."
Orphic singing 19 to Zeus of Thunder :"To Zeus Keraunos (Ceraunus) (Thundering). O dad Zeus, who shakest with fiery light the world, deep-sounding from her lofty height. Indigenous thee proceeds the ethereal lightning"s blaze, flashing approximately intolerable rays. Thy spiritual thunders shiver the blest abodes, the shining areas of the immortal Gods. Thy power divine the flaming lightning shrouds v dark investiture in fluid clouds. "Tis thine to brandish thunders solid and dire, come scatter storms, and also dreadful darts the fire; v roaring flames entailing all around, and bolts of thunder of incredible sound. Thy fast dart have the right to raise the hair upright, and shake the love of man with wild affright. Sudden, unconquered, holy, thundering God, v noise unbounded flying all abroad; through all-devouring force, entire and strong, horrid, untamed, she rollest the flames along. Rapid, ethereal bolt, to decrease fire, the earth, all-parent, trembles in ~ thine ire; the sea all-shining, and each beast, the hears the sound terrific, with dread fear fears: as soon as nature"s confront is bright through flashing fire, and in the heavens resound they thunders dire. They thunders white the azure garments tear, and burst the veil that all-surrounding air. O Zeus, all-blessed, may thy wrath severe, hurled in the bosom the the deep appear, and on the top of mountains be revealed, because that thy solid arm is not from united state concealed. Propitious to these spiritual rites incline, and to your suppliants give a life divine, include royal health, and also gentle peace beside, through upright reasoning for a constant guide."
Orphic chant 20 come Zeus that Lightning :"To Zeus Astrapaios (Astrapaeus) (Lightning Maker). I speak to the mighty, holy, splendid, light, aerial, dreadful-sounding, fiery-bright, flaming, ethereal light, v angry voice, lighting through lucid clouds with crashing noise. Untamed, to whom resentments dire belong, pure, divine power, all-parent, good and strong: come, and benevolent these rites attend, and also grant the mortal life a satisfaction end."
Orphic hymn 73 come the Daemon :"To the Daimon