Light and also the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Energy from the SunNearly every (99.97%) that the energy we have on Earth originates from the sun. This amounts to an median of 340 joules/second for every square meter the the Earth"s surface.Solar power is nuclear energy. It comes from the blend reactions that happen in the sun. In a fusion reaction, two tiny nuclei merge to type the nucleus of a bigger atom. Some mass is convert to energy in the process. Listed below is a typical combination reaction. One isotope the hydrogen, deuterium or 2H, combine with an additional isotope that hydrogen, tritium or 3H, to form helium and also a neutron.
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The deuterium nucleus is composed of 1 proton and also 1 neutron with an atomic mass of precisely 2.0. Tritium has actually 1 proton and also 2 neutrons (3.0 amu). The helium nucleus has actually a massive of 3.98 amu and also the complimentary neutron is 1.0 amu. In this reaction part mass, 0.02 amu, is converted right into energy.E = mc2 whereby c, rate of irradiate = 2.998 x 108 m/secRemember the the joule (J) is the typical unit of energy. We deserve to convert any type of other unit of energy into joules or kilojoules (kJ). There are many online conversions program to assist with the calculations. For instance 1 joule is equal to 1 (kilogram)(meter)2/(seconds)2.In the last lecture you saw that sun, like any kind of other warm object, publication its energy in discrete "rays" that have actually some properties of particles and also some properties of waves. We call it electromagnetic radiation.
There is a distribution of energies of the radiation that looks similar to distribution of kinetic energies that atoms and also molecules within a substance. Most graphs of power distributions have actually a comparable shape.Notice the radiation in the visible light selection is close to the average energy for the solar spectrum yet there is rather a little of radiation an ext and much less energetic 보다 this.You radiate energy, too. The radiation indigenous a human body of roughly 310 K is in the infrared range.
Electromagnetic radiationElectromagnetic radiation is the type of power that includes light, heat, and also x-rays. It have the right to be explained using a sinusoidal tide model, wherein the nature of the radiation depend on the wavelength, frequency, and also other parameters that the wave. For part purposes, it makes an ext sense to explain the energy as a stream of light particles dubbed photons, whereby the power of the photons is proportional to the frequency the the radiation. Wave nature of electromagnetic radiation:Amplitude (A): The height of the waveWavelength (λ): The distance between two crests the the waveCrest and trough: The highest and also lowest points, respectively, of a tide Speed of irradiate ( c ): The velocity of radiation together it travels through a vacuum. This amount is the exact same for all forms of electromagnetic radiation, indigenous x-rays to light to radio waves, and is continuous within a details transportation medium.The rate of light in vacuum is 2.99792 x 108 m/s. The speed of irradiate in waiting is only 0.03% slower, and c in either medium is usually simply rounded turn off to 3.00 x 108 m/s.
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Frequency (ν): The variety of waves the pass a fixed suggest per secondPeriod (T): The number of seconds that takes for a tide to happen a solved point
ν = 1/T - The frequency that the tide is the mutual of the period.λ ν = c (or ν = c/λ) - the product that frequency and also wavelength is the speed of light. Alternatively, the frequency the a tide is inversely proportional come the velocity.E = hν = hc/λ , whereby h is the Planck constant, 6.626 x 10-34 - The energy of the radiation is equal to the Plank constant multiplied by the frequency that the radiation.
The Electromagnetic SpectrumAlthough every waves of electromagnetic radiation take trip at the rate of light, different varieties of waves have actually vastly differing wavelengths, frequencies, and also energies. The much shorter the wavelength that the radiation, the higher the frequency and also the bigger the energy. The electromagnetic spectrum varieties from gamma (γ) radiation, which has the shortest wavelength, highest frequency, and also greatest energy, to radio waves, which has actually the longest wavelength and lowest frequency and energy.
Ultraviolet irradiate (UV) is divided into 3 regions:UV A, wavelength = 400 - 320 nmUV B, wavelength = 320 - 280 nmUV C, wavelength = Visible irradiate is in between 750 nm (red) and also 400 nm (violet). Mental Roy G. Biv?BackCompassTablesIndexIntroductionNextProfessor Patricia Shapley, college of Illinois, 2012