The President

The chairman is really influential in US foreign policy, and directs the nation’s war-waging, treaties, and also diplomatic relations.

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Learning Objectives

Explain the President’s authority together Commander-in-Chief that the united States


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThroughout the food of their time in office, many presidents gravitate towards international policy. That is often argued that the chairman has an ext autonomy in foreign policy as compared to domestic policy.The chairman is commander-in-chief that the equipped forces, but only Congress has authority come declare war and carry out funding. The war Powers plot attempted to border the president’s war-waging powers.The president has the power to make treaties, with a two-thirds poll of the Senate, and also has the strength to make worldwide agreements.The president is the chef diplomat as head the state. The president can likewise influence international policy through appointing us diplomats and also foreign assist workers.Key Termstreaty: A binding covenant under global law finish by subjects of international law, specific states and also international organizations.War strength Act: A federal legislation intended to check the President’s strength to walk the United says to an equipped conflict without the consent that Congress.congressional-executive agreements: one accord do by joint authority that the Congress and the chairman covering locations of global Law that room not in ~ the ambit of treaties.

The President’s affect on US foreign Policy

Presidents have an ext power and also responsibility in foreign and also defense plan than in residential affairs. They space the leaders in chef of the armed forces; they decide how and when to wage war. Together America’ chef diplomat, the president has the power to make treaties come be authorized by the Senate. And as head the state, the chairman speaks for the nation to other human being leaders and receives ambassadors.

Presidents nearly always point to international policy as proof of their term ‘s success. Domestic policy wonk bill Clinton metamorphosed into a international policy enthusiast from 1993 come 2001. Also prior come 9/11, the notoriously untraveled George W. Bush underwent the very same transformation. Chairman Obama has been simply as involved, if not more, in foreign policy than his predecessors. Congress—as lengthy as it is consulted—is much less inclined to challenge presidential efforts in foreign policy 보다 in domestic policy. The idea the the president has higher autonomy in foreign than residential policy is well-known as the “Two Presidencies Thesis.”

The President and Waging War

The president is the Commander-in-Chief of the unified States equipped Forces and as together has large authority over the armed forces. However, just Congress has authority to explain war and also decide the civilian and also military budget.

War powers administer a crucial avenue because that presidents come act in international policy. After ~ the 9/11 attacks, president Bush’s Office of legal Counsel said that together commander in cook President bush could carry out what was crucial to safeguard the American people. Because World battle II, presidents have actually never asked Congress for (or received) a statements of war. Instead, castle relied ~ above open-ended congressional authorizations to usage force, United countries resolutions, north American Treaty company (NATO) actions, and also orchestrated inquiry from tiny international establishments like the organization of eastern Caribbean States.

Congress can react versus undeclared battles by cutting accumulation for army interventions. Such initiatives are time consuming and not in place until long after the early incursion. Congress’s most concerted effort to border presidential war powers, the battle Powers Act, passed regardless of President Nixon’s veto in 1973. That was established to limit presidential war powers, but it gave presidents the right to commit troops for sixty days with only the conditions being come consult with and also report to Congress—conditions presidents often feel complimentary to ignore. Due to the fact that Vietnam, the act has done tiny to prevent presidents native unilaterally launching invasions.

President Obama walk not seek congressional authorization before ordering the US military to join strikes on the Libyan air defenses and government pressures in march 2011. After the battle campaign started, Obama sent Congress a letter contending that together Commander-in-Chief he had constitutional authority because that the attacks. White residence lawyers supplied the distinction between “limited military operation” and also “war” to justification this.

The President, Treaties, and also Agreements

Article II, ar 2 that the United claims Constitution grants strength to the president to make treaties through the “advice and consent ” that two-thirds the the Senate. This is various from normal regulation which needs approval by basic majorities in both the Senate and the home of Representatives..


President Wilson: Wilson had disagreements with congress over exactly how the peace treaty ending human being War I must be handled. Presidents often have a wide variety of influence on US international policy.


Throughout U.S. History, the chairman has also made global “agreements” with congressional-executive agreements (CEAs) that are validated with only a majority from both houses of Congress, or sole-executive agreements do by the chairman alone. The supreme Court of the United claims has taken into consideration congressional-executive and sole-executive agreements to it is in valid, and also they have actually been common throughout American history.

The President and also Diplomacy

Another ar of the structure that provides the president strength over foreign affairs is post II, ar 2, i 2 the the United claims Constitution, known as the Appointments Clause. This i empowers the chairman to appoint certain public officials with the “advice and consent” of the Senate. This clause also permits lower-level public representative to be appointed there is no the advice and also consent process. Thus, the president is responsible for the appointment of both upper- and also lower-level diplomats and also foreign-aid workers.

For example, the United states Secretary of State is the international Minister that the unified States and also the main conductor that state-to-state diplomacy. Both the Secretary of State and ambassadors are appointed by the President, through the advice and consent of the Senate.


Hillary Rodham Clinton: Hillary Clinton served as Secretary the State, i m sorry is the US’s international Minister. The President has actually the strength to choose diplomats (such as the Secretary the State), providing him or her comprehensive influence in US foreign policy.


As head the state, the president serves together the nation’s peak diplomat. Presidents are often shown as speaking for and also symbolically embodying the nation: offering a State the the Union address, welcoming foreign leaders, traveling abroad, or representing the United claims at an worldwide conference. Every one of these duties serve an important function in US international policy.


The Cabinet

The secretary the state and also secretary the defense play an essential roles in assisting the chairman with international policy.


Learning Objectives

Compare and contrast the functions of the Secretary the State and Secretary that Defense in U.S. Foreign policy


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe secretary that state assists the president in international affairs and also advises that on representatives and also international relations.The secretary of defense, among other things, advises the president on army affairs and hot spots throughout the world.Since 9/11 many functions that the secretary that state has been shifted to other departments so the secretary can focus on pressing foreign matters.Key Termscommander-in-chief: A commander-in-chief is the person working out supreme command authority end a nation’s military forces or far-ranging element of those forces.

The presidential cabinet has actually several secretaries who aid the president in foreign affairs. This has the secretary of state and also the secretary that defense.

The United states Secretary of State is the head that the United says Department that State, i m sorry is came to with international affairs. The Secretary is a member the the cabinet and also the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in heat of succession and stimulate of precedence. The present Secretary the State is john Kerry, the 68th human being to organize the post. The certain duties of the Secretary that State include:

Organizes and supervises the whole United says Department the State and the unified States international Service.Advises the chairman on problem relating to U.S. Foreign policy, including the meeting of diplomatic to represent to various other nations, and on the accept or dismissal of to represent from other nations.Participates in high-level negotiation with various other countries, one of two people bilaterally or as component of an global conference or organization, or appoints representatives to execute so. This has the negotiation of global treaties and also other agreements.Responsible for overall direction, coordination, and also supervision that interdepartmental tasks of the U.S. Government overseas.Provides information and also services come U.S. Citizens life or traveling abroad. Also provides credentials in the type of passports and visas.Supervises the United claims immigration plan at home and abroad.Communicates worries relating the unified States international policy come Congress and U.S. Citizens.

Most that the domestic functions of the room of State have been moved to various other agencies. Those the remain encompass storage and also use of the good Seal of the unified States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, and the drafting of certain proclamations. The Secretary additionally negotiates with the individual claims over the extradition the fugitives to foreign countries. Under commonwealth Law, the resignation of a president or that a Vice-President is only valid if asserted in writing in an instrument yielded to the office of the Secretary of State. Accordingly, the resignations of chairman Nixon and also of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, residential issues, to be formalized in instruments ceded to the Secretary that State.

As the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the Secretary the State is the third-highest main of the executive branch the the Federal government of the joined States, after ~ the President and Vice President. The Secretary that State is fourth in line to succeed the Presidency, comes after the angry President, the speaker of the residence of Representatives, and the President pro Tempore that the Senate. Six Secretaries the State have actually gone on to be elected President.


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Flag the the Secretary of Defense: The flag the the secretary of defense.


As the head that the unified States foreign Service, the Secretary the State is responsible for controlling the diplomatic organization of the united States. The foreign service employs about 12,000 civilization domestically and internationally. It support 265 United says Diplomatic missions about the world, including ambassadors to miscellaneous nations.

The Secretary of Defense is the head and chief executive, management officer of the room of Defense, i beg your pardon is an executive, management Department the the federal government of the United claims of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known together a defense Minister in plenty of other countries. The Secretary that Defense is appointed by the president with the advice and also consent the the senate. The individual is by custom a member the the cabinet and also by regulation a member that the national Security Council.

The Secretary of Defense is in the chain that command and also exercises command and control, subject just to the assignment of the President, over all Department the Defense forces (Army, Navy, wait Force, and also Marine Corps) for both operational and administrative purposes. Only the Secretary that Defense (or the President) have the right to authorize the deliver of operational control of forces between the three armed forces Departments and also between the combatant commands. Since the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal strength which exceeds those of any commissioned officer, and is 2nd only to the Office of chairman in the military hierarchy, it has sometimes unofficially been described as a de facto “deputy commander-in-chief. ” The Chairman of the joint Chiefs of employee is the principal military adviser come the Secretary the Defense and the President. When the Chairman may help the Secretary and President in your command functions, the Chairman is no in the chain the command.Secretary that Defense is a statutory office. That is the basic provision in governmental law that gives that the Secretary of Defense has actually “authority, direction and also control over the room of Defense. ” The Secretary of Defense is additional designated by the exact same statute as “the major assistant to the president in every matters relating come the department of Defense. ” Ensuring civilian control of the military, one individual might not it is in appointed together Secretary of Defense within seven years ~ relief from energetic duty together a i was delegated officer that a continuous (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force.


The Bureaucracy

Prominent administrative organizations shaping U.S. Foreign policy include the State Department, the Defense Department, and also the CIA.


Learning Objectives

Compare and also contrast the functions of the State Department, the Defense Department, and the central Intelligence firm in shaping U.S. Foreign policy.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe State room ‘s responsibilities include protecting and also assisting U.S. Citizens life or traveling abroad; assisting U.S. Companies in the global marketplace; and coordinating and also providing support for international tasks of various other U.S. Agencies.The department of Defense is the executive, management department that the U.S. Government came to directly with nationwide security and the U.S. Armed forces.The main Intelligence company (CIA) is an elevation civilian intelligence agency of the U.S. Federal government that gives national security knowledge assessments to an elderly U.S. Policymakers.Key Termsdiplomatic immunity: A diplomat’s immune to prosecution and/or lawsuit under local law.tactical: of, or relating to military operations that are smaller sized or an ext local 보다 strategic ones

There are several bureaucratic organizations that are actively involved in shaping U.S. Foreign policy. Prominent among them space the State Department, the Defense Department, and also the central Intelligence Agency.

The United states Department of State (DoS), often referred to together the State Department, is the U.S. Commonwealth executive department responsible because that the international relations of the unified States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of various other countries. The department was produced in 1789 and was the first executive department established. The room is led through the Secretary the State, who is nominated by the President, shown by the Senate, and is a member that the Cabinet. As proclaimed by the room of State, its function includes:


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U.S. State Department: The State room is one bureaucratic company that forms U.S. Foreign policy


Protecting and also assisting U.S. Citizens life or traveling abroad;Assisting U.S. Enterprise in the global marketplace;Coordinating and also providing assistance for international activities of other U.S. Organ (local, state, or federal government), official visits overseas and also at home, and other diplomatic efforts.Keeping the public informed around U.S. Foreign policy and relations with other countries and also providing feedback from the public to management officials.Providing car registration for non-diplomatic employee vehicles and the vehicles that diplomats that foreign nations having diplomatic immune in the united States

The department of Defense (also well-known as the Defense Department, USDOD, DOD, DoD or the Pentagon) is the executive, management department that the U.S. Federal government charged with coordinating and supervising every agencies and also functions that the government concerned directly with nationwide security and the U.S. Equipped forces. The room – top by the Secretary of Defense – has actually three subordinate armed forces departments: the room of the Army, the department of the Navy, and the department of the waiting Force. The armed forces Departments room each headed by their very own Secretary, appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate.

The main Intelligence company (CIA) is an live independence civilian intelligence firm of the U.S. Government. That is one executive agency that reports directly to the manager of National knowledge with obligation for offering national security intelligence assessments to senior U.S. Policymakers. Intelligence-gathering, a core role of the agency, is perform by non-military i was delegated civilian knowledge agents, countless of whom room trained to prevent tactical situations. The CIA also oversees and also sometimes engages in tactical and covert activities at the request of the U.S. President. Often, as soon as such field operations room organized, the U.S. Military or other warfare tacticians bring these tactical operations out on behalf of the agency while the CIA monitor them.


Congress

Two constitutional clauses, the Constitution and also Foreign commerce Clause and also the battle Power Clause, offer Congress foreign policy powers.


Learning Objectives

Evaluate the war Powers Clause and how the joined States’ process of declaring and also entering right into war has adjusted over time, identify the general function that conference plays in making and also coordinating foreign policy


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe battle Power clause states that just Congress deserve to declare war. This has been evoked five times in American history.Sometimes, this i directly conflicts with what the president desires to do. Together a result, the chairman will create a ” police action ” in a enemy territory instead of heralding war.Trade is also an important policy -making tool. Congress has actually the power to regulate foreign trade.Key Termspolice action: Police action in military/security studies and also international relationships is a euphemism because that a military action undertaken without a officially declaration that war.

Congress is offered several powers to communicate in foreign policy, but also to inspect the president’s actions international policy, specifically in the event of war. Probably the most essential powers space in the battle Power i which was provided to congress in the Constitution and also Foreign commerce Clause. This clause gives Congress through the power to regulate business overseas. 5 wars have been declared under the Constitution: the war of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War, civilization War I, and also World war II.

In the circumstances of the Mexican-American War, president James Polk described that Texas was about to become a component of United says of America. Mexico threatened to attack Texas. The chairman gathered troops near Corpus Christi. U.S. Troops moved right into an area in which the brand-new international border was gift disputed. Mexico troops moved right into the exact same area and also the two forces clashed. The President asserted that Mexico had actually passed the boundary into the unified States. Some people in Congress, consisting of Abraham Lincoln, wondered if this was true.

However, U.S. Presidents have actually not sought formal declarations of war often. Instead, they maintain that they have the constitutional authority, as commander in chef to usage the army for “police actions. ” according to chronicler Thomas Woods, “Ever because the Korean, post II, section 2 that the structure — which describes the president as the ‘Commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the joined States’ — has been understood to median that the president may act v an essentially cost-free hand in foreign affairs, or in ~ the very least that he may send males into battle without consulting Congress. ” Some world have argued this can pass together offensive actions, although historically police actions dropped mostly under the purview the protecting embassies, U.S. Citizens overseas, and also shipping such as the quasi war.

The korean War was the first modern example of the U.S. Going to battle without a formal declaration. This has been repeated in every equipped conflict because that time. However, start with the Vietnam, congress has offered other creates of authorizations to explain war. Some debate continues about whether the actions are appropriate. The tendency of the executive Branch to engage in the origination of such a push, that is marketing, and even propagandizing or related activities to create such assistance is additionally highly debated.


Johnson and also His Advisors: Johnson being displayed a map of an area in Vietnam. The police action spiraled right into a war-like case quickly, back it was one war never ever waged through Congress.


Therefore, in light of the speculation worrying the Gulf the Tonkin and also the feasible abuse of the authorization that followed, congress passed the war Powers Resolution in 1973. It needs the chairman to achieve either a statements of war or a resolution authorizing the use of force from Congress within 60 work of initiating hostilities through a complete disclosure of facts in the process. The constitutionality that the resolution has actually never been settled. Part presidents have criticized it as an unconstitutional intervention upon the president.

Some legal scholars preserve that offensive, non-police military actions, while a quorum can still be convened, taken there is no a formal conference declaration of battle is unconstitutional. They believe this due to the fact that no amendment with two-thirds majority of claims has readjusted the original intent to make the battle Powers Resolution legitimate binding. However, the supreme Court has never ruled directly on the matter and also to day no counter-resolutions have come to a vote. This separation of strength stalemate effect creates a “functional,” if not unanimous, governmental opinion and outcome top top the matter.

The commerce Clause in the Constitution likewise give conference the power to control trade between nations. The commerce Clause is an enumerated perform in the United says Constitution. The clause says that the United says Congress shall have actually power “to regulate commerce with foreign Nations, and amongst the number of States, and with the Indian Tribes. ” these powers are sometimes debated as different powers, but they are basically important because trade is thought about to be crucial form of economic diplomacy between the united States and foreign nations.


Interest Groups

Foreign policy interest teams are domestic advocacy establishments which seek to influence the government’s foreign policy.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIn order to build and maintain your influence, lock use methods such together framing the issue and also shaping the regards to debate, offering information and analysis to elected representatives, and also monitoring the policy procedure and reacting to it.Foreign policy interest groups regularly overlap v so-called “ethnic” attention groups, as they try to affect the international policy of the United states for the advantage of the international “ethnic kin” or homeland through whom corresponding ethnic groups identify.Though ethnic interest groups have exist for many decades, lock have become a specifically influential phenomenon because the finish of the Cold War.Key Termsadvocacy: The act of suggesting in favor of, or supporting something.

Foreign policy interest groups, which are residential advocacy institutions seeking to straight or indirectly affect the government ‘s international policy, room a an essential player in U.S. International policy.

According come U.S. Scholar john Dietrich, these interest groups have mobilized to represent a diverse variety of business, labor, ethnic, human being rights, environmental, and other organizations. In order to build and also maintain your influence, they usage tactics, such together framing the issue and also shaping the regards to debate; offering information and evaluation to chosen representatives (who may not have the time to study the worry himself or herself); and also monitoring the policy procedure and reaction to it through disseminating supplementary information, letter-writing campaigns, call for additional hearings or legislation, and also supporting or the contrary candidates throughout elections.

Foreign policy interest groups often overlap through so-called “ethnic” attention groups, as they shot to influence the international policy and, come a lesser extent, the residential policy the the United claims for the benefit of the international “ethnic kin” or homeland with whom respective ethnic teams identify. Though ethnic interest teams have exist for plenty of decades, they have end up being a an especially influential phenomenon since the end of the Cold War.

According to politics scientist thomas Ambrosio, this is a result of growing acceptance the ethnic identity teams have the ideal to mobilize politically for the purpose of affecting U.S. Plans at home and abroad. Prominent instances of these organizations encompass the American Israel public Affairs Committee, the Cuban American nationwide Foundation, the Armenian Assembly that America, the U.S.-India Political action Committee, and the national Iranian American Council.


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the American Israel windy Affairs Committee: The American Israel public Affairs Committee is a prominent foreign policy attention group


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe media is most significant when the covers international policy that directly affects Americans, specifically affairs with which Americans are not acquainted.Vietnam to be a time as soon as many human being watched the horrors of battle on television. This helped the popular of the battle sink.After these viewings, the armed forces founds itself affiliated in politics and having to perform damage manage to ease the public’s and the politicians’ concerns.Key Termsmedia: method and institutions for publishing and broadcasting information.media bias: A predisposition in journalistic reporting, in programming selection, etc., in mass interactions media.

Agenda -Setting in foreign Policy

One method in i beg your pardon the media could set the agenda is if the is in one area in i m sorry very few Americans have direct knowledge of the issues. This applies to international policy. Once American armed forces personnel space involved, the media demands to report due to the fact that the personnel are related to the American public. The media is likewise likely to have an interest in reporting issues that have an extensive effects top top American workers, such as significant trade agreements v Mexico throughout the NAFTA negotiations in the 1990’s.

David McKay, author of American Politics and Society, lists as among the three main distortions of information by the media, “Placing high priority top top American news come the detriment of international news. And when the U.S. Is engaged in military action abroad, this ‘foreign news’ crowds out other international news. ”

News Media and the Vietnam War

In the media’s many famous instance in authorized on international affairs to be its joining in the Vietnam War. From 40 press corpsmen in 1964, the number in southern Vietnam had actually grown come 282 by January 1966. Through August that number had jumped come 419. The the 282 in ~ the beginning of the year, just 110 were Americans. 67 were southern Vietnamese, 26 Japanese, 24 British, 13 Korean, 11 French, and also seven German. The media caught many combat events, commonly on live television, i beg your pardon prompted plenty of American citizens to be concerned around foreign policy.


Soldier in Vietnam: Graphics like this helped contribute to Americans’ concern over foreign policy in Vietnam.


The U.S. Mission and the MACV (Military assistance Command) likewise installed one “information czar,” the U.S. Mission’s Minister-Counselor because that Public Affairs, Barry Zorthian, advised general William Westmoreland on publicly affairs matters. He had actually theoretical responsibility under the ambassador for the development of all information policy. He kept liaison between the embassy, MACV, and also the press; publicized details to refute erroneous and also misleading news stories; and sought to assist the Saigon correspondents in covering the next of the war many favorable come the policies of the U.S. Government. Zorthian possessed both endure with the media and also a great deal the patience and tact while preserving reasonably good relations with the push corps. Media correspondents were invite to to visit nightly MACV briefings extending the day’s occasions that came to be known as the “Five O’Clock Follies. ” many correspondents considered these briefings to be a waste of time. The Saigon office chiefs were also often invited to closeup of the door sessions at which presentations would certainly be made by a briefing officer, the CIA terminal chief, or an main from the embassy who would existing background or off-the-record details on upcoming military operations or Vietnamese political events.

According come Daniel Hallin, the dramatic framework of the uncensored “living room war” together reported throughout 1965–1967 remained an easy and traditional: “the pressures of an excellent were locked in fight once again v the forces of evil. What started to readjust in 1967 was the conviction the the forces of an excellent would certain prevail. ” during late 1967 the MACV had additionally begun to overlook the decision it had actually made in ~ the Honolulu Conference the the armed forces should leaving the justification of the war to chosen officials in Washington. The military uncovered itself attracted progressively into politics, to the allude that the had become as connected in “selling” the battle to the American public together the political appointees the served. This change would have far-reaching detrimental effects.

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Media Bias

A self-described liberal media watchdog group, Fairness and Accuracy in reporting (FAIR), in consultation through the Survey and Evaluation research study Laboratory at Virginia republic University, sponsored an academic study in i beg your pardon journalists were asked a selection of questions around how they walk their occupational and around how they viewed the high quality of media coverage in the large area of politics and economic policy. “They were asked for your opinions and also views about a range of recent policy issues and also debates. Finally, they to be asked because that demographic and identifying information, consisting of their politics orientation.” lock then compared to the same or similar questions posed with “the public” based upon Gallup, and also Pew trust polls. Their examine concluded the a majority of journalists, although fairly liberal on social policies, were substantially to the ideal of the public on economic, labor, health care, and foreign policy issues.