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The bronze Age marked the first time human beings started to work-related with metal. Copper tools and also weapons soon changed earlier rock versions. Old Sumerians in the Middle east may have been the an initial people to go into the bronze Age. Humans made many technological advances throughout the copper Age, including the first writing systems and the creation of the wheel. In the middle East and also parts that Asia, the Bronze age lasted from approximately 3300 come 1200 B.C., finishing abruptly v the near-simultaneous please of several significant Bronze age civilizations.

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Humans may have started smelting copper as early as 6,000 B.C. In the abundant Crescent, a an ar often called “the cradle the civilization” and also a historical area that the Middle eastern where agriculture and the world’s first cities emerged.


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A reconstruction illustration of a Bronze period cottage inner in Grimspound. A so late Bronze age settlement situated on Dartmoor in Devon, England. It consisted of a set of 24 hut circles surrounding by a low stone wall.

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Bronze period Tools

Ancient Sumer may have actually been the first civilization to start adding tin to copper to make bronze. Bronze to be harder and more durable 보다 copper, i m sorry made copper a much better metal because that tools and weapons.

Archaeological evidence suggests the transition from copper to bronze take it place roughly 3300 B.C. The innovation of bronze carried an finish to the rock Age, the prehistoric duration dominated through the use of stone tools and weaponry.


Different human societies gone into the Bronze period at various times. Civilizations in Greece began working v bronze before 3000 B.C., if the british Isles and China entered the Bronze period much later—around 1900 B.C. And also 1600 B.C., respectively.

READ MORE: 9 Bronze age Weapons

The Bronze period was marked by the climb of claims or kingdoms—large-scale cultures joined under a main government by a powerful ruler. Bronze age states interacted with each various other through trade, warfare, migration and also the spread of ideas. Influential Bronze age kingdoms consisted of Sumer and Babylonia in Mesopotamia and also Athens in ancient Greece.


The Bronze period ended approximately 1200 B.C. Once humans started to build an also stronger metal: iron.

Bronze Age civilizations


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A map of Europe during the late bronze age, circa 1100 B.C.

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Sumer: through the 4th millennium BCE, Sumerians had actually established roughly a dozen city-states throughout old Mesopotamia, including Eridu and also Uruk in what is currently southern Iraq.

Sumerians dubbed themselves the Sag-giga, the “black-headed ones.” they were among the first to usage bronze. They also pioneered the usage of levees and canals for irrigation. Sumerians invented picture writing script, among the earliest creates of writing and also built large stepped pyramid temples referred to as ziggurats.

Sumerians celebrated art and also literature. The 3,000-line poem “Epic of Gilgamesh” follows the adventures of a Sumerian king together he battles a woodland monster and quests ~ the keys of eternal life.


Babylonia: Babylonia climbed to importance in the bronze Age around 1900 B.C., in contemporary Iraq. That is capital, the city the Babylon, was an initial occupied by human being known as the Amorites.

The Amorite King Hammurabi created one that the world’s earliest and also most-complete written legal codes. The code of Hammurabi assisted Babylon surpass the Sumerian City of Ur together the region’s most powerful city.


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Minoan world on the Greek island the Crete.

DEA snapshot Library/De Agostini/Getty Images


Greece became a major hub of task on the Mediterranean throughout the bronze Age. The Bronze period in Greece began with the Cycladic civilization, very early Bronze Age society that developed southeast of the Greek mainland top top the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea approximately 3200 B.C.


A few hundred year later, the Minoan civilization emerged on the island that Crete. The Minoans are taken into consideration the first advanced world in Europe.

The Minoans to be traders that exported timber, olive oil, wine and also dye to nearby Egypt, Syria, Cyprus and the Greek mainland. They imported metals and also other raw materials, including copper, tin, ivory and precious stones.

Around 1600 B.C., the Mycenaean civilization rose on the Greek mainland, and also their culture flourished during the late Bronze Age. Significant Mycenaean power centers consisted of Mycenae, Thebes, Sparta and Athens.

Many Greek myths space tied come Mycenae. In Greek mythology, the city of Mycenae was started by Perseus, the Greek hero that beheaded Medusa. The Mycenaean king Agamemnon invaded Troy during the Trojan war of Homer’s “Iliad,” despite there room no historical records of a Mycenaean king of the name.

Bronze period Collapse

The copper Age ended abruptly around 1200 B.C. In the middle East, north Africa and Mediterranean Europe. Historians don’t recognize for sure what caused the Bronze age collapse, however many think the change was sudden, violent and also culturally disruptive.

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READ MORE: What caused the Bronze age Collapse?

Major Bronze age civilizations, including Mycenaean Greece, the Hittite empire in Turkey and old Egypt dropped within a short duration of time. Ancient cities were abandoned, trade courses were lost and also literacy declined throughout the region.