Define osmosis and diffusion. Distinguish among hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions. Explain a semipermeable membrane. Predict actions of blood cell in various solution types. Describe flow of solvent molecules throughout a membrane. Identify the polar and nonpolar areas of a cabinet membrane. Describe the components present in a phospholipid.

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Fish cells, like all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" top top either side of castle will also out. A fish that resides in salt water will have somewhat braided water inside itself. Put it in freshwater, and the freshwater will, with osmosis, go into the fish, bring about its cell to swell, and also the fish will certainly die. What will happen to a freshwater fish in the ocean?


Imagine you have actually a cup that has \(100 \: \textmL\) water, and you include \(15 \: \textg\) of table sugar to the water. The street dissolves and the mixture that is currently in the cup is consisted of of a solute (the sugar) the is liquified in the solvent (the water). The mixture that a solute in a solvent is called a solution.

Imagine currently that you have actually a 2nd cup through \(100 \: \textmL\) that water, and you add \(45 \: \textg\) of table street to the water. As with the very first cup, the sugar is the solute, and also the water is the solvent. Yet now you have actually two mixtures of different solute concentrations. In to compare two solutions of unlike solute concentration, the equipment with the higher solute concentration is hypertonic, and the solution with the lower solute concentration is hypotonic. Services of same solute concentration space isotonic. The very first sugar equipment is hypotonic to the 2nd solution. The 2nd sugar solution is hypertonic come the first.

You now add the two options to a manufacturer that has actually been split by a semipermeable membrane, with pores that are too little for the street molecules to pass through, but are large enough because that the water molecules to pass through. The hypertonic equipment is one one next of the membrane and also the hypotonic equipment on the other. The hypertonic solution has a reduced water concentration than the hypotonic solution, for this reason a concentration gradient the water currently exists across the membrane. Water molecule will move from the side of higher water concentration come the side of lower concentration till both remedies are isotonic. At this point, equilibrium is reached.

Red blood cell behave the same way (see figure below). Once red blood cells room in a hypertonic (higher concentration) solution, water flows the end of the cell quicker than it come in. This results in crenation (shriveling) that the blood cell. On the other extreme, a red blood cell that is hypotonic (lower concentration exterior the cell) will an outcome in an ext water flowing into the cell than out. This outcomes in swelling of the cell and potential hemolysis (bursting) of the cell. In one isotonic solution, the flow of water in and out that the cabinet is happening in ~ the exact same rate.

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Figure \(\PageIndex2\): Plasma membranes are primarily consisted of of phospholipids (orange). The hydrophilic ("water-loving") head and also two hydrophobic ("water-hating") tails space shown. The phospholipids form a bilayer (two layers). The middle of the double layer is an area without water. There can be water ~ above either next of the bilayer. There are countless proteins throughout the membrane.