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Introduction

Nutrients room chemical substances required by the body to sustain straightforward functions and are optimally derived by eat a balanced diet. There room six significant classes that nutrients necessary for human health: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and also water. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are thought about macronutrients and also serve together a source of energy. Water is required in huge amounts but does no yield energy. Vitamins and also minerals are thought about micronutrients and play vital roles in metabolism. Vitamins room organic medium of funds classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. The crucial water-soluble vitamins encompass vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, and C. The crucial fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, E, D, and K. Minerals are inorganic micronutrients. Minerals deserve to classify as macrominerals or microminerals. Macrominerals are compelled in quantities greater 보다 100 mg every day and include calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Sodium, potassium, and chloride are also electrolytes. Microminerals room those nutrients forced in amounts less than 100 mg per day and include iron, copper, zinc, selenium, and also iodine. This post will review the adhering to biochemical elements of the necessary nutrients: fundamentals, cellular, molecular, function, testing, and also clinical significance.<1><2>


Fundamentals

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are vital macronutrients that are the primary resource of energy for humans; 1 gram that carbohydrate consists of 4 kcal the energy.<3> Carbohydrates also play functions in gut health and immune function. Carbohydrates are current in plant-based foodstuffs like grains, fruits, vegetables, and also milk. Carbohydrates space ingested in the type of an easy carbohydrates, choose monosaccharides and disaccharides, or complicated carbohydrates, prefer oligosaccharides and also polysaccharides. Monosaccharides room the simple building block of every carbohydrates and include glucose, fructose, and also galactose. Glucose is the primary type to i m sorry carbohydrates become metabolized in humans. Disaccharides contain 2 sugar units and include lactose, sucrose, and maltose. Lactose is a carbohydrate discovered in milk, and sucrose is basic table sugar. Oligosaccharides covers 3 come 10 street units and include raffinose and stachyose, which room in legumes. Polysaccharides encompass greater 보다 ten street units and consist that starches, glycogen, and fibers, like pectin and also cellulose. Starches choose amylose are in grains, starchy vegetables, and also legumes and consist of glucose monomers. Glycogen is the storage type of glucose in animals and is current in the liver and muscle, but there is little to none in the diet. Fibers space plant polysaccharides like pectin and cellulose uncovered in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes however are not digestible by humans. However, castle play a significant role in gut health and wellness and role and deserve to be spend by microbiota in the large intestine.<4> For healthy and balanced children and also adults, carbohydrates must make up about 45 to 65% of energy intake based on the minimum required glucose for brain function. The encourage fiber intake is higher than 38 g because that men and 25 g for women, i m sorry is the intake the research has actually observed to reduced the danger of coronary artery disease. Part carbohydrates are an ext nutritious 보다 others. Optimal carbohydrate intake consists of fiber-rich, nutrient-dense totality grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and included sugar.<5>

Proteins 

Proteins are necessary macronutrients that add to structural and also mechanical function, regulate processes in the cells and body, and provide energy if necessary. Proteins space composed that amino acids and also are obtainable in food sources favor meats, dairy foods, legumes, vegetables, and also grains.<6> 1 gram that protein has 4 kcal of energy.<5> The recommended protein intake is 0.8 to 1 gram per kilogram that body load per day.<7> For healthy children ages 1 to 3, periods 4 to 18, and adults, approximately 5 to 20%, 10 to 30%, and also 10 to 35% of daily power intake must come native protein, respectively, based on the enough amount necessary for nitrogen equilibrium.<5>

Lipids

Lipids are important macronutrients that space the main source of stored power in the body, contribute to to move structure and also function, regulate temperature, and also protect human body organs. Lipids are discovered in fats, oils, meats, dairy, and also plants and consumed largely in the form of triglycerides.<8> One gram the fat consists of 9 kcal the energy.<3> for healthy kids ages 1 to 3, eras 4 to 18, and also adults, about 30 to 40%, 25 to 15%, and 20 to 35% of daily energy intake should come indigenous fat, respectively. About 5 to 10% and also 0.6 to 1.2% of the everyday fat energy intake must consist that n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) and also n-3 polyunsaturated fat acids (α-linolenic acid), respectively.<5>

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Thiamin, or vitamin B1, is an essential water-soluble vitamin the acts together a coenzyme in carbohydrate and also branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Thiamin is in food sources such together enriched and whole grains, legumes, and also pork. The RDA (Recommended diet Allowance) of thiamin for adult is 1.1 mg/day because that women and 1.2 mg/day for men.<9> 

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, is critical water-soluble vitamin the acts together a coenzyme in oxidation reactions. Riboflavin is present in food sources such together enriched and whole grains, milk and also dairy products, irpari vegetables, and beef. The RDA of riboflavin for adult is 1.1 mg/day for women and 1.3 mg/day for men.<9> 

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Niacin, or vitamin B3, is an essential water-soluble vitamin the acts as a coenzyme to dehydrogenase enzymes in the carry of the hydride ion and an essential component of the electron carrier NAD and NADP. Niacin is present in enriched and also whole grains and also high protein foods like meat, milk, and also eggs. The RDA that niacin for adult is 14 mg/day that NEs (niacin equivalents) because that women and also 16 mg/day of NEs for men.<9> 

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Pantothenic acid, or vitamin B5, is an essential water-soluble vitamin the acts together a key component the coenzyme A and also phosphopantetheine, i beg your pardon are an essential to fatty mountain metabolism. Pantothenic mountain is prevalent in foods. The AI (adequate intake) of pantothenic acid for adult is 5 mg/day.<9> 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 

Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is an important water-soluble vitamin that acts together a coenzyme for amino acid, glycogen, and sphingoid basic metabolism. Vitamin B6 is widespread among food groups. The RDA because that vitamin B6 for adults is 1.3 mg/day.<9> 

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Biotin, or vitamin B7, is critical water-soluble vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in carboxylation reaction dependent top top bicarbonate. Biotin is uncovered widespread in foods, especially egg yolks, soybeans, and whole grains. The AI of biotin for adult is 30 mcg/day.<9> 

Vitamin B9 (Folate) 

Folate, or vitamin B9, is an essential water-soluble vitamin the acts as a coenzyme in single-carbon move in nucleic acid and also amino mountain metabolism. Folate is in enriched and fortified grains, green leafy vegetables, and legumes. The RDA the folate for adults is 400 mcg/day the DFEs. The referral is that women of childbearing age consume an additional 400 mcg/day the folic mountain from additionally or fortified foods to diminish the threat of neural pipe defects.<9> 

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Vitamin B12, or cobalamin, is crucial water-soluble vitamin the acts together coenzymes for the an important methyl move reaction in converting homocysteine come methionine and the isomerization reaction that occurs in the switch of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. Vitamin B12 is only existing in animal products due to the fact that it is a product that bacteria synthesis. Countless foods are likewise fortified with synthetic vitamin B12. The RDA the vitamin B12 for adults is 2.4 mcg/day. That is recommended for older adults to satisfy their RDA with fortified foods or supplements since many are unable come absorb naturally emerging vitamin B12.<9> 

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is critical water-soluble vitamin the acts together a reducing certified dealer in enzymatic reactions and also nonenzymatically together a dissolve antioxidant. Vitamin C is found primarily in fruits and also vegetables, other than for animal organs prefer the liver and also kidneys. The RDA that vitamin C for adult women and men is 75 mg/day and also 90 mg/day, respectively. Smokers require secondary 35 mg/day that vitamin C.<10>

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Vitamin A, or retinol, is an essential fat-soluble vitamin the plays many roles in vision, cellular differentiation, gene expression, growth, the immune system, bone development, and also reproduction. Vitamin A is uncovered primarily in pet products. Fruits and vegetables space a resource of provitamin A carotenoids that can be converted to retinol in the human body at a lesser amount. The RDA because that vitamin A for adults is 900 mcg/day for males and also 700 mcg/day because that females.<11>

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)

Vitamin D, or cholecalciferol, is vital fat-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role in calcium metabolism, cell growth and development, and bone health. Vitamin D have the right to be found in fish oils and in little amounts in plants in its less biologically energetic form. Interestingly, vitamin D synthesis wake up in the skin through exposure to UV light making dietary sources unnecessary in specific cases. The RDA because that vitamin D for adult is 10 to 15 mcg/day.<11>

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Vitamin E, or tocopherol, is a fat-soluble vitamin the is one antioxidant and also may play roles in cabinet signaling, platelet aggregation, and also vasodilation. Vitamin E, in the type of α-tocopherol, is found in particular vegetable oils, including sunflower, safflower, canola, and olive oil, entirety grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables. The RDA because that vitamin E for adults is 15 mg/day.<11>  

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone; Menaquinone)

Vitamin K is vital fat-soluble vitamin that is the coenzyme in the carboxylation that glutamic mountain to type γ-carboxyglutamic mountain reaction, i beg your pardon is crucial to the proteins involved in blood coagulation. Vitamin K is current in eco-friendly leafy vegetables, canola oil, and also soybean oil. The RDA the vitamin K for adult is 120 mcg/day for men and 90 mcg/day for women.<11>

Calcium

Calcium is an essential macromineral responsible for many structural components such as bones and also teeth and physiological mechanisms in the body. Calcium exist in dietary sources such together dairy, cereals, legumes, and vegetables. The RDA because that calcium for adults is 1,000 mg/day.<12><13> 

Magnesium

Magnesium is critical macromineral responsible for countless functions in the body, including signaling pathways, energy storage, and also transfer, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, neuromuscular function, and bone development. Magnesium is current in food sources such together fruits, vegetables, entirety grains, legumes, nuts, dairy, meat, and fortified foods like cereal. The adult RDA because that magnesium is 400 mg/day.<14><15>

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is an essential macromineral that is a structural ingredient of bones and also teeth, DNA, RNA, and also plasma membrane the cells. That is also vital metabolically come produce and store energy. Phosphorus is pervasive transparent food sources, with the best contributors gift milk, dairy, meat, and poultry. Phosphorus is also an additive in processed foods as a preservative. The RDA because that phosphorus for adult is 700 mg/day.<16> 

Sodium

Sodium is critical macromineral and also electrolyte that plays crucial roles in to move membrane transport, water balance, nerve innervation, and also muscle contraction together the most abundant extracellular cation. Sodium is obtainable in dietary sources such as salt, processed foods, meat, milk, eggs, and also vegetables. The AI for sodium for adults is 1,500 mg/day; however, the average sodium intake in established nations is 2 or 3 fold by comparison, at 3,000 to 4,500 mg/day.<17><18><17>  

Potassium

Potassium is vital macromineral and also electrolyte that plays an essential roles in muscle contraction, nerve innervation, blood pH balance, and water balance as the most abundant intracellular cation. Potassium is obtainable in dietary sources such together fruits and vegetables. The AI for potassium is for adults is 4,700 mg/day.<17><19><17>

Chloride

Chloride is vital macromineral and electrolyte the plays crucial roles in digestion, muscular activity, water balance, and acid-base balance as the many abundant extracellular anion in the body. Dietary chloride is nearly always present in dietary sources connected with sodium in the type of NaCl or table salt. Chloride is in processed foods, meat, milk, eggs, and also vegetables. The AI because that chloride for adults is 1,500 mg/day.<17><20><17>

Iron

Iron is vital trace mineral that has actually a an important role in oxygen transport and energy metabolism. Diet iron is from sources such as meat, fortified grains, and green leafy vegetables. Animal foods save a more bioavailable form of iron dubbed heme iron, while plant foods and also fortified seed contain a much less bioavailable kind called non-heme iron. The RDA for iron for adult is 8 to 18 mg/day.<21><22> 

Zinc

Zinc is crucial trace mineral that attributes structurally in proteins and also catalytically together a component of over 300 various enzymes. Zinc appears in a range of foods, especially shellfish and red meat. The RDA because that zinc for adults is 10 mg/day.<23> 

Copper

Copper is an essential trace mineral that acts as a ingredient of countless proteins, including numerous important enzymes. Copper is in a range of food sources however the greatest concentrations in body organ meats, nuts, seeds, chocolate, and also shellfish. The RDA for copper for adults is 1 mg/day.<24><25>

Iodine

Iodine is an important trace mineral important for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodine is existing in meats and plant foods based upon the soil content of the food production region. Otherwise, iodized salt is the key food resource of iodine in regions with low soil iodine content. The adult RDA for iodine is 150 mcg/day.

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Selenium

Selenium is crucial trace mineral the is an important component that selenoproteins the play biological roles in antioxidant defense and anabolic processes in the person body. Selenium wake up in grains and also vegetables, yet the amounts vary based upon the selenium contents in the soil the the grains and also vegetables were grown in. Brazil nuts are well-known for having high concentration of selenium. The RDA for selenium for adult is 55 mcg/day.<27>