You are watching: What passes high-energy electrons into the electron transport chain
What execute trains, trucks, boats, and planes all have actually in common? they are ways to transport. And they all use a most energy. To make ATP, power must be "transported" - first from glucose to NADH, and then somehow passed come ATP. Just how is this done? through an electron deliver chain, the third stage the aerobic respiration. This third stage uses power to do energy.
The Electron move Chain: ATP for Life in the quick Lane
At the finish of the Krebs Cycle, energy from the betterworld2016.orgical bonds of glucose is stored in varied energy transport molecules: 4 ATPs, but likewise two FADH(_2) and ten NADH molecules. The major task the the last phase of cellular respiration, the electron carry chain, is come transfer energy from the electron carrier to even more ATP molecules, the "batteries" i m sorry power work-related within the cell.
Pathways for making ATP in phase 3 the aerobic respiration closely resemble the electron deliver chains supplied in photosynthesis. In both electron carry chains, power carrier molecules room arranged in sequence in ~ a membrane so the energy-carrying electrons cascade indigenous one come another, losing a small energy in each step. In both photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, the energy lost is harnessed to pump hydrogen ions right into a compartment, creating an electrobetterworld2016.orgical gradient or betterworld2016.orgiosmotic gradient across the enclosing membrane. And also in both processes, the energy stored in the betterworld2016.orgiosmotic gradient is provided with ATP synthase to construct ATP.
For aerobic respiration, the electron transport chain or "respiratory chain" is embedded in the within membrane that the mitochondria (see number below). The FADH(_2) and NADH molecules created in glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle, donate high-energy electrons to energy carrier molecules within the membrane. Together they happen from one carrier to another, the power they shed is used to pump hydrogen ions into the mitochondrial intermembrane space, producing an electrobetterworld2016.orgical gradient. Hydrogen ions circulation "down" the gradient - from external to inside compartment - with the ion channel/enzyme ATP synthase, which move their energy to ATP. Note the paradox the it requires power to create and also maintain a concentration gradient the hydrogen ion that space then supplied by ATP synthase to produce stored power (ATP). In large terms, the takes power to do energy. Coupling the electron transfer chain to ATP synthesis v a hydrogen ion gradient is betterworld2016.orgiosmosis, very first described through Nobel laureate Peter D. Mitchell. This process, the usage of power to phosphorylate ADP and also produce ATP is also known as oxidative phosphorylation.
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After passing with the electron transfer chain, low-energy electrons and also low-energy hydrogen ions integrate with oxygen to type water. Thus, oxygen"s role is to journey the entire collection of ATP-producing reactions within the mitochondrion by accepting "spent" hydrogens. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor, no component of the procedure - native the Krebs Cycle through the electron transfer chain- can happen without oxygen.
The electron transfer chain can convert the energy from one glucose molecule"s precious of (FADH_2) and (NADH) + (ceH^+) into as many as 34 ATP. Once the 4 ATP produced in glycolysis and also the Krebs Cycle are added, the full of 38 ATP fits the as whole equation because that aerobic moving respiration:
< ce6O2 + underbraceceC6H12O6_ extstored betterworld2016.orgistry energy + ce38 ADP + ext39 P_ exti ightarrow underbracece38 ATP_ extstored betterworld2016.orgical energy + ce6CO2 + ce6 H2O>
Aerobic respiration is complete. If oxygen is available, to move respiration transfers the energy from one molecule that glucose come 38 molecules of ATP, release carbon dioxide and also water as waste. "Deliverable" food power has end up being energy which have the right to be used for occupational within the cell - move within the cell, pumping ions and molecules across membranes, and building large organic molecules. Have the right to you see exactly how this can lead come "life in the quick lane" contrasted to anaerobic respiration (glycolysis alone)?