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Key People:Joseph Priestley...(Show more)Related Topics:nitrogen cyclenitric acidairbiogenic gasliquid nitrogen...(Show more)

nitrogen (N), nonmetallic element of group 15 the the routine table. The is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas the is the most plentiful element in earth’s atmosphere and also is a ingredient of every living matter.


Element Propertiesatomic numberatomic weightmelting pointboiling pointdensity (1 atm, 0° C)usual oxidation stateselectron configuration
7
14.0067
−209.86 °C (−345.8 °F)
−195.8 °C (−320.4 °F)
1.2506 grams/litre
−3, +3, +5
1s22s22p3

History

About four-fifths that Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, which to be isolated and also recognized as a certain substance during early investigate of the air. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a swedish chemist, verified in 1772 the air is a mixture of two gases, among which he called “fire air,” since it supported combustion, and the other “foul air,” because it was left after the “fire air” had been offered up. The “fire air” was, of course, oxygen and also the “foul air” nitrogen. At about the exact same time, nitrogen additionally was recognized by a Scottish botanist, Daniel Rutherford (who was the first to i announced his findings), by the british chemist Henry Cavendish, and by the brother clergyman and scientist Joseph Priestley, who, with Scheele, is given credit for the discovery of oxygen. Later on work proved the new gas to be a constituent of nitre, a usual name because that potassium nitrate (KNO3), and, accordingly, it was called nitrogen by the French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790. Nitrogen an initial was considered a chemical facet by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, who explanation of the role of oxygen in burning eventually overthrew the phlogiston theory, an erroneous view of burning that became popular in the at an early stage 18th century. The i can not qualify of nitrogen to support life (Greek: zoe) led Lavoisier to name it azote, quiet the French indistinguishable of nitrogen.


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The regular table is made up of 118 elements. How well do you know their symbols? In this quiz you will do it be shown all 118 chemical symbols, and you’ll need to pick the surname of the chemical element that each one represents.

Occurrence and also distribution

Among the elements, nitrogen ranks sixth in cosmic abundance. The setting of Earth is composed of 75.51 percent by load (or 78.09 percent through volume) that nitrogen; this is the principal resource of nitrogen for commerce and also industry. The atmosphere likewise contains varying small amounts that ammonia and also ammonium salts, and also nitrogen oxides and nitric mountain (the latter substances being formed in electric storms and also in the internal combustion engine). Complimentary nitrogen is uncovered in numerous meteorites; in gases that volcanoes, mines, and some mineral springs; in the Sun; and in some stars and nebulae.

Nitrogen also occurs in mineral store of nitre or saltpetre (potassium nitrate, KNO3) and Chile saltpetre (sodium nitrate, NaNO3), yet these deposits exist in quantities that are wholly insufficient for human being needs. Another material well-off in nitrogen is guano, uncovered in bat caves and in dry places frequented through birds. In combination, nitrogen is uncovered in the rain and also soil as ammonia and also ammonium salts and also in seawater together ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2−), and also nitrate (NO3−) ions. Nitrogen constitutes on the average about 16 percent by weight of the complicated organic compounds known as proteins, existing in all living organisms. The organic abundance that nitrogen in earth crust is 0.3 part per 1,000. The cosmic abundance—the estimated complete abundance in the universe—is in between three and seven atoms per atom that silicon, which is taken together the standard.


India, Russia, the united States, Trinidad and also Tobago, and Ukraine were the top five producers the nitrogen (in the form of ammonia) in the early 21st century.

Commercial production and also uses

Commercial production of nitrogen is greatly by fountain distillation that liquefied air. The boil temperature of nitrogen is −195.8 °C (−320.4 °F), about 13 °C (−23 °F) below that that oxygen, i m sorry is because of this left behind. Nitrogen can additionally be developed on a big scale by burn carbon or hydrocarbons in air and separating the resulting carbon dioxide and also water from the residual nitrogen. Top top a small scale, pure nitrogen is made by heater barium azide, Ba(N3)2. Miscellaneous laboratory reactions that yield nitrogen include heating ammonium nitrite (NH4NO2) solutions, oxidation of ammonia by bromine water, and also oxidation the ammonia by warm cupric oxide.

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Elemental nitrogen have the right to be supplied as an inert environment for reactions requiring the exclusion of oxygen and also moisture. In the fluid state, nitrogen has beneficial cryogenic applications; other than for the gases hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, fluorine, and also oxygen, nearly all chemical substances have negligible vapour pressures at the boiling suggest of nitrogen and also exist, therefore, together crystalline solids at that temperature.

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In the chemical industry, nitrogen is offered as a preventative of oxidation or other destruction of a product, together an inert diluent of a reactive gas, together a carrier to remove warmth or chemicals and also as an inhibitor that fire or explosions. In the food sector nitrogen gas is employed to stop spoilage v oxidation, mold, or insects, and liquid nitrogen is offered for frozen drying and also for refrigeration systems. In the electric industry nitrogen is supplied to protect against oxidation and other chemistry reactions, come pressurize cable jackets, and to shield motors. Nitrogen finds applications in the metals industry in welding, soldering, and also brazing, where it helps prevent oxidation, carburization, and decarburization. Together a nonreactive gas, nitrogen is to work to do foamed—or expanded—rubber, plastics, and elastomers, to serve as a propellant gas because that aerosol cans, and to pressurize fluid propellants for reaction jets. In medicine rapid freezing with liquid nitrogen may be used to keep blood, bone marrow, tissue, bacteria, and semen. Liquid nitrogen has also proven valuable in cryogenic research.