|The task of metals||Classifying Metals based on Activity|
|Predicting the Product of Main group Metal reaction|
The task ofMetals
The main difference between metals is the ease v whichthey undergo betterworld2016.orgical reactions. The facets toward the bottomleft corner of the routine table space the metals that room themost active in the feeling of being the many reactive.Lithium, sodium, and also potassium all react v water, because that example.The price of this reaction rises as us go under this column,however, since these facets become more active together they becomemore metallic.
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Classifying MetalsBased ~ above Activity
The metals are often divided into 4 classes ~ above the communication oftheir activity, as presented in the table below.
Common Metals divided into class on theBasis of their Activity
|Class ns Metals: The active Metals|
|Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs (Group IA)|
|Ca, Sr, Ba (Group IIA)|
|Class II Metals: The Less active Metals|
|Mg, Al, Zn, Mn|
|Class III Metals: The structural Metals|
|Cr, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu|
|Class IV Metals: The Coinage Metals|
|Ag, Au, Pt, Hg|
The most active metals space so reactive that they readilycombine through the O2 and also H2O vapor in theatmosphere and also are as such stored under an inert liquid, suchas mineral oil. These metals are discovered exclusively in teams IAand IIA the the periodic table.
Metals in the second class room slightly much less active. Theydon"t react with water at room temperature, but they reactrapidly through acids.
The 3rd class contains metals such as chromium, iron, tin,and lead, i m sorry react only with strong acids. It also containseven less active metals such as copper, which only dissolves whentreated v acids that have the right to oxidize the metal.
Metals in the fourth course are therefore unreactive castle areessentially inert at room temperature. These metals are best formaking jewel or coins because they carry out not react with the vastmajority that the substances v which lock come right into dailycontact. As a result, they room often called the "coinagemetals."
Predicting the Productof Main team Metal reactions
The product of numerous reactions in between main group metals andother aspects can it is in predicted native the electron configurationsof the elements.
Example: take into consideration the reaction between sodium and also chlorine toform sodium chloride. That takes much more energy to remove an electronfrom a sodium atom to kind an Na+ ion than we get backwhen this electron is added to a chlorine atom to form a Cl-ion. When these ions space formed, however, the pressure of attractionbetween these ion liberates enough energy to do the followingreaction exothermic.
|Na(s) + 1/2 Cl2(g) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/betterworld2016.orgistry/genbetterworld2016.org/public_html/topicreview/bp/ch9/graphics/rarrow.gif"> NaCl(s)|| |
Ho = -411.3 kJ/mol
The net result of this reaction is to transport one electronfrom a neutral sodium atom to a neutral chlorine atom to form Na+and Cl- ions that have actually filled-shell configurations.
Potassium and hydrogen have the complying with electronconfigurations.
|K: ||H: 1s1|
When these facets react, one electron needs to be transferredfrom one element to the other. We can decide which aspect shouldlose an electron by compare the first ionization energy forpotassium (418.8 kJ/mol) v that for hydrogen (1312.0 kJ/mol).
Potassium is much much more likely to shed anelectron in this reaction, which means that hydrogen profit anelectron to type K+ and H- ions.
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|Practice difficulty 1:|
Write a balanced equation because that the complying with reaction.
Li(s) + O2(s) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/betterworld2016.orgistry/genbetterworld2016.org/public_html/topicreview/bp/ch9/graphics/rarrow.gif">