Solar Parameters

Mass: 1.98892x1030 kg 332,946 x planet Mass (Me)
Equatorial Radius: 6.95x105 Km
Mean Diameter: 1.392x106 Km

The Solar Structure

Internal Structure

Inner Core

The Inner core of the sun is the main engine of this star. Here, gravity and also heat administer the necessary energy to drive the nuclear fusion processes that power the sun. In the core, the fusion processes called the Proton-Proton Cycle and also the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen Cycle take it place. Practically all the heat from the sunlight is created in the inner core. Density: 1.622×105 kg/m3 Temp: ~1.57×107 K

Radiative Zone

Just outside the Inner core of the sun at a distance about 0.25 come 0.7 solar radii lies the Radiative Zone. This zone radiates power through the procedure of photon emission and capture through the hydrogen and also helium ions. Density: 20 g/cm3 to 0.2 g/cm3 Temp: Approx. 7x106 come 2x106 K

Convection Zone

Moving from a street of around 200,000 kilometres (125,000 mi) lies the Convective Zone of the Sun. This zone is not thick enough to use radiative transport of energy, instead, it uses thermal convection zones, in various other words, that boils. Power is brought through thermal columns to the surface of the sun and creates areas that we check out as solar granulation and also super granulation. At the surface, the temperature fall to about 5700 degrees Kelvin (9800 degrees F)* and has a density of around 0.2g/m3. This regions also cause the little magnetic areas over the surface of the sun as result of the differential convection the the columns.

Surface and also Atmosphere


On the surface ar of the sun, we reach the Photosphere. This an ar of the sunlight is opaque (or optically dark) come light. The is the region where the light from the sun is emitted. The irradiate is emitted v the communication of electrons through Hydrogen atoms.


The solar environment is made up of number of sub layers: the temperature minimum, the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona, and the heliosphere. The temperature rises from the temperature minimum layer (4700K) in the direction of the solar corona (upwards of 20,000,000K).

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Solar Activity

The Solar Wind

The solar wind is the present of corpuscle (protons, electrons, neutrinos, etc), energy, and radiation indigenous the sun. The solar wind is brought about by the release of energy and particles native the sun"s surface. It travels past us in ~ a rate in between 300 and 800 Km/s and also varies day to day through the change in the sun"s activity.

The solar wind is the reason of a comet"s tail and additionally the cause of the auroras (northern or southerly lights). Planet would be much more affected through the solar wind to be it not for the magnetic ar that surrounding us. The magnetic field causes the charged particles native the sun to flow roughly the earth barely showing any kind of effects at all, usually. There have been instances where over there is a Coronal fixed Ejection and also that deserve to overwhelm ours magnetic ar for a short duration of time causing difficulties with satellites and also communications.


Current wind speed


Coronal massive Ejections

Coronal massive ejections (CME) are caused by the snapping of neighborhood magnetic areas that have captured plasma (because its a charged, super-heated gas that deserve to follow magnetic fields) and also release this into room in a gigantic explosion. These have the right to send product toward the earth at speeds reaching 3200 Km/s. When these strike earth with sufficient energy, lock may reason satellite, communication and power grid problems. However they can offer the beauty beauty of one aurora which, can occur at reduced latitudes getting to as much as southerly Utah.

Prominences and also Solar Flares

Prominences are resulted in by hot charged plasma following magnetic fields produced by convection currents in ~ the sun. Together the plasma is exit from the sun, it can sometimes it is in trapped by the magnetic fields and pulled earlier to the sun in a huge arc. Us don"t check out the magnetic fields themselves, just the effect it has on the gas together its travelling follow me the magnetic ar lines. Periodically these have the right to magnetic areas can break and also cause a CME or a importance ejection.

Solar flares are releases of plasma native the sun. Lock look like huge flames stretching out indigenous the surface. If there to be a large magnetic ar nearby, these can easily turn right into a prominence. Solar flares vary in dimension where some appear extremely small (yet in fact are enormous) and also others seem come stretch far from the surface appearing to it is in 1/4 the diameter that the sun.

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Sunspots are dark clues on the sun once viewed in optical wavelengths They only show up dark because of their temperature being about 1000 degrees Kelvin lower than the bordering surface. Lock are led to by magnetic fields developing on those areas and also suppressing the outward circulation of gas in ~ the photosphere. This causes less flow of warm gasses on the area making them cooler. This might sound choose its a suppression of task but this are connected with higher activity the the sun. This way the much more sunspots girlfriend see, the an ext active the sun is. Sunspots vary in dimension to that of Utah to numerous times the size of Earth. They last for a couple of hours to number of days. They typically come in groups and can be checked out to have a bipolar magnetic field in that area.

Sunspot and Solar Cycles

The sun has a cycle of sunspot activity that has actually a period of every 11 years. This can be watched as and also increase of sunspot activity, CMEs, prominences and solar flares. The leading concept on why this wake up is because of the sun"s magnetic field. Since the sun is a big ball of hot gas, it has actually differential rotation. This is once the poles that the sun rotate quicker than in ~ the equator. Together the sunlight goes v this, the magnetic ar builds up and also "wraps" about the sunlight until a suggest where the is stretched too far and also breaks. At this point, the magnetic poles flip and also begin a new cycle. The magnetic poles in reality reverse every 11 years so the solar cycle, which is different from the sunspot cycle, is 22 years.