DOCTOR"S view ARCHIVE JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA-"What are little boysmade of? Snips and snails, and puppy dogs" tails; That"s whatlittle boys space made of." follow to the old nursery rhyme.The next verse, of course, addresses the parallel question: "Whatare small girls made of? Sugar and also spice, and everything nice;That"s what tiny girls are made of." The behavioral differences between boys and also girlscontinue to it is in a issue of usual wisdom. Because that example, over there wasa front-page write-up in The new York times on June 15 about thechildren the Robert F. ("Bobby") Kennedy. The reporterDeborah Sontag detailed that, among Bobby"s 11 children: "Itwas accepted that the guys had more problems 보다 the girls, becauseas Mrs. Kennedy Townsend (the eldest that Bobby"s offspring) said,"boys in general acquire in trouble more."" do boys "get in problem more?" even morebasically, do boys and also girls connect in different behaviors? Ifso, why? Is it all learned with our experiences (environmental)?Or, execute our gene play a role, perhaps in pre-programming our behavior? What might be important different between boys" and also girls"behaviors might not have to with boys" snips and snails and also puppydogs" tails or v girls" sugar and also spice levels. Instead, itmay need to do through differences between their X chromosomes. The is what is proposed in a provocative research publishedthis mainly in the eminent British journal Nature(1997;volume 387, web page 705). The file is entitled "Evidencefrom Turner"s syndrome of one imprinted X-linked locus affectingcognitive function." boys (XY) constantly receive their solitary X chromosomefrom their mother while girls (XX) obtain an X from your motherand an X from your father. As far as X chromosomes go, what separatesboys from girl is not just that girls have actually two X chromosomesbut that only girls have an X chromosome from your father (apaternal X). Turner"s syndrome is a disorder that girls. Girl withTurner"s syndrome have actually only one intact X chromosome instead ofthe 2 Xs that regular girls have. There is usually no secondsex chromosome in Turner girls. The "X-linked locus"mentioned in the report"s title refers to a place (the locus)of a gene ~ above the X chromosome. The Nature study suggests that thisarea that the X chromosome have the right to be "imprinted" (chemicallyaltered), so the the role of the gene is various dependingon whether that X chromosome came from the father or the mother.In turn, this imprintable gene locus may have some influence on"cognitive function." Cognition (from the Latin cognitiomeaning "to know") is the operation of the mind by whichwe know, perceive, and think. In Turner"s syndrome the is occasionally said (for example,by the writer of the Nature study) that intelligenceis commonly normal. In fact, the typical IQ score of patient withTurner"s syndrome is roughly 90, i m sorry is clearly below the averageIQ the 100 in the general population.

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What is perhaps much more striking around the capacity tothink in patients through Turner"s syndrome is the specificity ofcertain neuropsychological defects. Turner"s girls often tend to havedeficits in visual-spatial orientation (so they have trouble driving),deficits in social thought (so they may miss ethereal social cues),and deficits in nonverbal trouble solving (so lock may have problemswith mathematical concepts). Moreover, society adjustment problemsare rather commonplace in Turner"s girls. The examine in Nature exploited the factthat in the majority of girls v Turner"s syndrome, your singleintact X chromosome originates from their mommy while in the remainingcases it originates from the father. The authors contrasted 55 Turner"sgirls who had actually a maternal X with 25 Turner"s girls who had a paternalX. They uncovered that the Turner"s girls v a paternal X were "significantlybetter changed with remarkable verbal and also higher-order executivefunction skills which mediate social interactions." most intriguing is how the writer of the examine interprettheir results. Lock propose that imprinting of the paternal Xpermits activation and also expression of one or more genes involvedin society skills. The X chromosome from the dad is an ext "socially inclined" than that from mom. (A genetically innovative viewer wrote united state commenting that: "Imprinting is a term i can not qualify to be acquainted to the general population....Imprinted genes room not constantly expressed, imprinting can also repress a gene"s expression. In addition, the X chromosome is no imprinted! True, just one X is express in a regular female, however this is as result of X inactivation and also is random. This means that in 2 might inactivate the head X, the other the maternal X. Imprinting dictates that either the maternal or head gene (depending top top the gene involved) will constantly be expressed. In this case, the individuals disputed only have actually one X - so expression is clearly not related to whether the chromosome is imprinted or not.) due to the fact that all boys have actually an X chromosome that came fromtheir mothers, they deserve to only receive a Y chromosome that makesthem male from their fathers. Therefore, it follows that boyswill have tendency to absence the social savvy that girls. One deserve to speculate regarding the evolutionary basis forthis disparity. Even without active genes because that social skills, wouldmales in a hunter-gatherer culture have been at a disadvantage?Did a male need social an abilities to chase down and also kill a wild animal?On the other hand, gene determining social an abilities might it is in usefulto females working together approximately the campsite in a cooperativefashion, performing tasks such together cooking, make clothes, andraising children. The report in Nature is first-authoredby Dr. David H. Skuse from the institute of Child wellness in London.Dr. Skuse is one of ten writer of this study. The critical -listedauthor is Dr. Patricia A. Jacobs. (Together through the very first author,the last writer is traditionally taken into consideration most important tothe research). Dr. Jacobs is a senior chromosome scientist ofconsiderable renown.
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The Pulitzer prize winning reporter Natalie Angiernoted in The new York times on June 12 that no all researchersare buying right into this association between a sex chromosome andbehavior. Because that instance, Dr. Evan S. Balaban that the NeurosciencesInstitute in mountain Diego stated to Ms. Angier that, "oneof the researchers on the current report had been an author ona examine in 1965" which associated "violent criminalbehavior" through XYY, one extra Y sex chromosome in males, anassociation the "proved to be statistically spurious."The scientist to who Dr. Balaban alluded is clearly Dr. Jacobs.However, due to the fact that a 1965 examine failed to hold up to follow-up researchis no reason at every why a 1997 study can not be best on themark. Time will tell whether modern-day genetics has actually foundthe basis because that an old nursery rhyme.

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