Learning Objectives

summarize the colonial exploitation and development of Australia. Recognize the straightforward characteristics of Australia’s physical geography. Outline just how the core-periphery spatial relationship uses to Australia. Explain the country’s general social attributes. Summary the methods used for the country to gain national wealth.

Physical Geography

There is an international attraction come the island continent the Australia, and also the attraction has actually grown in soot in the past few decades. Tourism is now the number one economic task in Australia. Simply slightly smaller sized in physics area than the continental joined States, Australia is a large country with countless resources but few people relative to that size. The Tropic the Capricorn runs right through the middle of this country. Australia hosts numerous unique types of plants and animals, consisting of marsupials and also a hold of gift snakes and also insects. With the introduction of europe colonialism, brand-new species were presented to the country, i m sorry regrettably caused the extinction of some of the native types but also gave Australia a broad diversity the organisms and also natural conditions.

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Australia is a reasonably low-lying island v low relief. The is the flattest of all the continents. The miscellaneous highland arrays are pronounced, but are not high in elevation. The Great splitting Range is a hill chain prolonging from Melbourne in the southern to Cape York in the north. This low-lying variety of highlands averages around four thousand feet and also reaches an elevation of just over 7 thousand feet in ~ its greatest peaks in the south. The largest river in Australia is the Darling-Murray River system that beginning in the highland that the great Dividing variety and operation inward through new South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and also South Australia.

The great interior the the nation is house to the massive outback. Prolonging west native the great Dividing Range, the outback incorporates most the the interior. This an ar receives much less rainfall than along the coast and its terrain is composed of deserts and also semiarid plateaus with rough grasses and scrublands. The outback is sparsely populated, yet is home to a variety of aboriginal groups. Plenty of of the school-age children in the outback have actually traditionally received their institution lessons through television or radio broadcasts because of their isolation. Mining and also some agricultural tasks can be found in the outback. Alice Springs is located in the center of the continent and also has been given the designation of the center of nowhere, or the center of everything.

Figure 12.4 The Ghan (Train) wait at Alice Springs Station before Continuing phibìc to Darwin


The remote town of Alice Springs is situated at the center of the Australian outback.

Source: photo courtesy of Mike Young, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ghan_at_Alice_Springs.jpg.

The deserts of Australia’s interior consist of a huge portion that the continent. Western Australia has actually three huge deserts: the Gibson Desert, Great Victoria Desert, and also Great Sandy Desert. The Simpson Desert is situated in the border an ar between the north Territory, Queensland, and South Australia. These deserts are not all sand; course grasses and also various species of spinifex, a short plant the grows in sandy soil, likewise grow in the deserts. The Great Artesian Basin top top the west edge the the great Dividing selection receives very little rainfall. It would certainly be classified together a desert however for its secret water resources, which support considerable farming operations. Big livestock companies exist in Australia’s internal with massive herds that cattle and sheep. The grassy plateaus and also scrublands administer grazing for domesticated livestock and also even wild camels.

The an excellent Barrier Reef, the largest obstacle reef in the world, extends for 1,600 miles off the northeastern coastline of Australia. The is residence to a hold of sea creatures and fish that draw millions that tourists each year. The reef attractive scuba divers and water enthusiasts from roughly the world. The reef is a key tourism attraction and brings income to the Australian economy. The good Barrier Reef has been designated together a joined Nations civilization Heritage Site. Brisbane is located on the Gold Coast, which it s okay its surname from the beautiful sandy beaches. The beaches attract critical tourism market for the country.

Figure 12.5 Aerial watch of Uluru (Ayers Rock), located in the internal of Australia near Alice Springs


The absent rises 1,142 feet above the outback and also is 2.2 mile long. The website is spiritual to the Aborigines and is a major tourist attraction. It is listed as a civilization Heritage Site.

Source: picture courtesy of Huntster, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uluru_%28Helicopter_view%29-crop.jpg.

A couple of large physical functions of interest and significance come Australia space the two largest monoliths in the world. In western Australia, more than 5 hundred mile to the northeast the Perth, is Mt. Augustus nationwide Park, which functions the rock known as Mt. Augustus. It is thought about to be the largest solitary rock in the world. Mt. Augustus rises 2,352 feet over the desert landscape. The solitary structure is around five miles long. Mt. Augustus is an ext than twice the dimension of the most well known Australian monolith the Uluru (Ayers Rock). Uluru is located about two hundred mile southwest that Alice Springs in the north Territory and is a popular tourist attraction. Uluru rises 1,142 feet over the outback and is around 2.2 miles long. Both rocks organize significant social value come the aboriginal populations in Australia. Castle both have old petroglyphs, and also both are thought about sacred sites. Uluru has actually been more popularized with tourism promotions.

Climate Regions

Central and also western Australia space sparsely populated. Large areas the the northern Territory and also the desert areas are uninhabited. About 40 percent of Australia’s interior is desert, where type B climates dominate. The big land mass can heat up throughout the summer months, triggering high temperatures. Short humidity allows heat to escape into the atmosphere after the sunlight goes down, so over there is broad temperature variation in between day and night.

Along the northern coastal region there are more tropical form A climates. Closer come the equator and also with the sea come moderate temperatures, the northern areas around Darwin and also Cape York have small temperature variation. Temperatures in Darwin average about 90 °F in the summer and 86 °F in the winter. Feather monsoons bring extr rainfall indigenous February come March.

Tasmania, Victoria, and also the core an ar of the southeast have actually a more moderate and temperate kind C climate. The main cities, such as Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide, room within this area. It is not surprising the there is a direct correlation between form C climates and the significant population areas. The Tropic the Capricorn cuts throughout the continent, indicating that the cities room not that much south of the tropics. Typical winter temperatures in June and also July carry out not typically fall listed below 50 °F and average summer temperatures in January and also February remain around 70 °F. Due to the fact that the seasons are reversed from the of the northern Hemisphere, numerous Australians walk to the beach because that Christmas.

Figure 12.6 Australia’s Provinces and also Territories and also Their Respective major Cities


The two core areas, where most of Australia’s populace resides, are also noted. Not unexpectedly, the core areas have a dominant type C climate, following the general principle that human beings gravitate toward type C climates.

Source: Updated indigenous map courtesy of Golbez, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_states_blank.png.

Population, Urbanization, and also the Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship

Australia is divided politically right into six states and also two territories. They space the north Territory, Australian funding Territory, west Australia, Tasmania, south Australia, Queensland, and new South Wales. Australian protectorates room composed that a variety of small islands approximately Australia. Australian core areas are conducive to large human populations. To find the core population areas in Australia, simply uncover the moderate type C climates. Australia has two core regions. There is a small core region in the west, anchored through the city of Perth. Many of Australia’s civilization live in the big core an ar in the east along the coast. This an ar extends indigenous Brisbane come Adelaide and holds many of the country’s population.

The total populace of Australia in 2010 was only about twenty-two million. There are much more people living in Mexico City than in every one of Australia. An ext than 90 percent that this populace has european heritage; many of this percent is native the brothers Isles. English is the leading language. Christianity is the dominant religion the choice. The makeup of the civilization is a product of european colonialism and also immigration.

Only about 2 percent of the current population consists of indigenous people, the original civilization of Australia. Australia’s population has viewed periodic development spurts together waves of immigrant responded to national policies encouraging immigration. This was especially true after human being War II. About 24 percent of the current population was born outside Australia; most come indigenous the unified Kingdom, and another large percentage comes from brand-new Zealand. Oriental countries have likewise contributed come the Australian population, through measurable numbers of immigrants from China, Vietnam, and also the Philippines. And also lastly, human being from Italy and India additionally make up a remarkable proportion that Australia’s immigrant population.

Australia’s population is not spread out evenly throughout the landscape, because a big portion the the country is desert. The population is concentrated mostly in the metropolitan areas. About 90 percent of the population inhabits the cities, i m sorry are greatly in coastal areas. The largest city, Sydney, is frequently referred to together the new York that Australia. Sydney is positioned at the heart of the key core area, the state of brand-new South Wales. Come the south of Sydney is the Australian capital Territory, residence to the resources city that Canberra. Other significant Australian cities incorporate Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane. Hobart is the biggest city on the island that Tasmania and also Darwin is the biggest city in the north Territory.

Figure 12.7 The Sydney Opera house Viewed from the Water v the City Skyline


Source: photograph courtesy the Matthew Field, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sydney_opera_house_and_skyline.jpg.

All the large cities of Australia—with except the planned funding city the Canberra—are located on the coast. This sample of urban circulation was a product that European early american development. Most of Australia’s populace lives in the two economic core regions, for this reason Australia exhibits a distinctive core-periphery spatial pattern. The core areas hold the power, wealth, and influence if the periphery region supplies every the food, life materials, and also goods essential in the core. Australia has actually never had a bulk rural populace since its aboriginal times. There has actually been tiny rural-to-urban change in Australia’s population. This is similar to Japan’s urban advance pattern.

English is the very first language that the vast majority of the population. Recently enacted plans and transforming attitudes towards multiculturalism have spurred expansion in the number of immigrants and their descendants that speak two languages fluently—English and also the language of your birthplace or nationwide heritage. Aboriginal languages have not fared therefore well. As countless as three hundred native languages were spoken by AboriginesPeople indigenous to Australia once the europe colonialists arrived. Prior to the europeans arrived, and just a few hundred year later, that number now stands at around seventy. Most aboriginal languages are in danger of dying out.

Culture and also Immigration

Until 1973, Australia had actually a repertoire of laws and policies well-known as the White Australia policy, which offered to limit the immigrant of nonwhite persons come Australia. While the White Australia policies minimal immigration from part areas, various other policies search to broaden immigration indigenous the united Kingdom. Subsidies were readily available to brother citizens to relocate to Australia. Between 1830 and also 1940, an ext than a million brother citizens took advantage of the offer.

Recent census data indicate that around a 4 minutes 1 of the populace identifies itself as roman inn Catholic and also another 20 percent self-identifies together Anglican (the nationwide religion that the joined Kingdom). Second 20 percent self-identify together Protestant, other than Anglican, and about 15 percent as having actually no religion. Regular church attendance is claimed by at about 7.5 percent of the population. Despite contemporary Australia having been settled by the British, Australian law decrees the Australia will have actually no national religion and guarantees flexibility of religion.

Sports are critical part the Australian culture, maybe owing to a climate that enables for year-round the end activity. Around a fourth of the populace is affiliated in some type of organized sports team. Football (soccer) is popular, as is true in most European countries, and also rugby and cricket are well-known as well. The most popular spectator sports in Australia is Australian rules Football, additionally known as Aussie rule Football, or merely “footy.” This unique Australian video game has encode rules the date back to 1858 and is a different of football and rugby. Other creates of entertainment encompass television, film, and also live performances the every kind. Although Australia has actually a number of its own television stations, over there are concerns that popular society is start to be overcame by American influences. Australia’s huge cities have comprehensive programs in the arts. Sydney is coming to be a facility for world-class performances in dance, opera, music, and also theatre.

Education is fine funded and internationally respected. College attendance is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen, and also the adult literacy rate has actually held steady at about 99 percent. Many students to visit publicly funded schools, which space secular. Exclusive schools, which charge tuition fees, do exist and are typically run by religious organizations, mostly the Catholic Church.

Economic Geography

Most that Australia—especially the wide expanse the the arid internal known as the outback—has tremendous open spaces, agricultural potential or excellent source extraction possibilities. The comprehensive grasslands assistance tens of millions of domesticated animals—mainly cattle and also sheep—which accounts for approximately one-fifth that the world’s structure production. Large agricultural businesses encompass thousands of acre under one operation. The west sector that the an excellent Dividing range in new South Wales is fantastic region for commercial serial operations. The seaside region in Queensland, due to the fact that it is warmer and receives more rainfall, is good for sugarcane and comparable crops. Sheep and cattle ranches are common in central Queensland and Western Australia. Assorted regions of southerly Australia are excellent for grape and also fruit production. Australian alcohol production has actually risen to compete with the US and European markets. Only the dry main desert regions in the facility of the continent room not favorable because that agriculture. In the early portion of the twenty century, Australia gained huge wealth through exporting food assets to the rest of the world. This is quiet true, but the profit margin top top food products is no longer what it offered to be. The country has had to look elsewhere to acquire wealth.

Figure 12.8


The agricultural an ar of the Barossa sink in south Australia grow grapes and also produces wine. Farming production is a major source of financial wealth for Australia also though only 11 percent that the population lives in rural areas. Australia’s wine production is broadening to contend in the an international marketplace, through France and also California as significant competitors.

Source: photograph courtesy of Louis Roving, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barossa_Valley_South_Australia.jpg.

Australia has terrific food manufacturing capabilities. It likewise has wonderful mineral resource base. Different types of minerals have the right to be uncovered in various regions throughout Australia. West Australia has iron ore mines. The eastern region of Queensland and new South Wales has abundant coal reserves. Mineral such as zinc, copper, gold, silver, tungsten, and nickel deserve to be found in assorted parts of the country, consisting of Tasmania. Oil and also gas fields can be discovered in the northwestern coastal waters and also in the Tasman Sea eastern of Melbourne. The nation is self-sufficient in natural gas yet does have to import part petroleum products.

Figure 12.9 Australia’s distribution of life Materials


Source: Updated indigenous map courtesy that Golbez, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australia_states_blank.png.

Are any Australian-manufactured products obtainable where you live? What products can friend think of? Australia does not export countless manufactured goods. Its main exports room food and also raw materials. If you remember how nations gain wealth, the method with the highest valued-added profit is manufacturing. Think about Japan and the four eastern economic tigers, and how lock have acquired their wealth. The economic tigers have few raw materials. Where do you suppose the financial tigers and Japan get their raw materials? with Japan’s massive manufacturing capacity, it has actually a high need for imported stole ore, minerals, and also raw materials. Though Australia is a previous British colony, great Britain is not taken into consideration Australia’s biggest trading partner. Australia is closer geographically come the eastern economic neighborhood than to the european Union. Japan has end up being Australia’s greatest trading partner. Once Australia is viewed in the news, in television programs, and also in Hollywood movies, that is illustrated as a nation with a comparable standard of living to the United claims or Europe. How do Australians have actually such a high conventional of life if they don’t manufacture anything because that export? To advice this, think about the dimension of the populace of Australia and also consider the circulation of wealth. They export an tremendous amount of life materials and have a fairly small population to re-publishing the wealth.

Figure 12.10 Bondi Beach


The Gold coast of east Australia draws tourists from the northern Hemisphere throughout the winter season. The is called the yellow Coast because of the lengthy stretches of gold sand beaches, the golden tanned body of coast goers, and the high level of income (gold) obtained from the tourism industry.

Source: photo courtesy of Dingy, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bondi_beach_en_novembre.JPG.

Australia is an attractive ar to visit. The environment, the animals, and the society make that inviting because that tourism. Together of the year 2002, tourism has come to be Australia’s number one means of financial income. Native the great Barrier Reef and the Gold coast to the substantial expanse of the outback, Australia has actually been marketing itself together an attractive location to visit with good success. Tourism from Japan gives a large percentage of the traveler activity. Australia has moved v the initial stages of the index of economic development to become a society that is about 90 percent city with tiny families and high incomes.

Mining and aboriginal Lands

Territorial control of Australian lands has become a significant issue in recent years. Big portions of western Australia and the outback have actually traditionally been indigenous lands. European colonialism on the Australian continent displaced numerous of the native people. Large sections of soil once provided by the Aborigines were taken over by the government or by private interests. Large agricultural operations and mining operations have actually used the soil without enough compensation to the aboriginal people that once regulated them. Court rulings aimed at reparation because that native civilization have had actually mixed results.

There room as countless as 4 hundred various groups the Aborigines right now in Australia that make up a total population of about four hundred fifty thousand. This is a tiny percentage that Australia’s populace but entails a large part the the physics area that the country. Their land claims include all of the northern Territory, a huge portion of west Australia, and parts of southern Australia and also Queensland. This is in addition to cases located within countless urban areas, such as the largest city, Sydney. Mining to work on indigenous lands have come to be highly regulated. Comes to have emerged that Australia’s extractive sectors will diminish, resulting in a decrease in the economy. The worry for the Aboriginal populace has increased in the past couple of decades and the federal government has do attempts to mediate their political and also economic issues and strengthen program that resolve their society welfare.

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Australia’s Future

The economic future of Australia is complex. Despite tourism has become a viable method of offering income, Australia should import manufactured commodities that that does not produce locally, including electronic goods, computers, and automobiles. Import dependence has actually increased its profession deficit. Profession agreements and protectionism have come to be a part of the economic puzzle of exactly how to sustain a competitive conventional of living. Australia is situated next to the eastern realm. That economy, culture, and future space becoming an ext Asian. Immigration has been an concern in the the federal government has always minimal immigration come ensure a europe majority. Millions of eastern people would prefer to move to Australia to seek greater opportunities and also advantages, but they are legally restricted. The is ending up being more complicated for Australians to host to their European connections with together an eastern presence. Just how the nation will handle this situation in the future will prove interesting.

Key Takeaways

Australia is an island continent the was home to aboriginal people before the British conquered it by an initial creating prison swarms for convicts from great Britain. Australia is a reasonably flat continent with low key highlands, including the great Dividing range along its eastern coast. The internal outback lacks precipitation and also has countless deserts. Two key core areas exist where type C climates prevail and where many of the population lives: a large core area ~ above the southeastern coast and a small core area approximately Perth on the western coast. The sparsely lived in outback provides up the substantial periphery, i beg your pardon has large amounts the mineral and agricultural resources. Indigenous people to be in Australia for fourty thousand years. The british colonial activity didn’t warmth up until the late 1700s. Today, most of the twenty-two million civilization are indigenous the brother Isles and Europe. Only about four hundred fifty thousands Aborigines remain. Australia has couple of manufacturing enterprises because that export profits. Travel has become the number one an approach of acquiring wealth, through the fiddle of raw products the second-largest method.

Discussion and also Study Questions

surname the European nation that conquered Australia. What to be the initial reason for colonizing Australia? What are Australia’s main political divisions? What is the large interior called? What are several of Australia’s main physical features? exactly how are they arisen for tourism? What room the key climate types in Australia? exactly how does climate relate come population? What form of government does Australia have? What is its funding city? that is head that state? overview the core-periphery connection in Australia. What distinguish the core areas? just how does Australia compare through the oriental economic tigers? just how do they assistance each other? how does Australia keep a high standard of living as soon as it exports few manufactured products? What are Australia’s key exports? that is their main trading partner? What stage is the country in through regard come the index of financial development?

Geography Exercise

Identify the following crucial places ~ above a map:

Adelaide Arafura Sea Australian resources Territory Brisbane Canberra Cape York Coral Sea Darling-Murray river Darwin Gibson Desert yellow Coast great Artesian Basin good Australian Bight an excellent Barrier Reef great Dividing Range an excellent Sandy Desert an excellent Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Hobart Melbourne brand-new South Wales northern Territory Outback Perth Queensland Sydney Simpson Desert south Australia Tasman Sea Tasmania Timor Sea Victoria west Australia