Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11. A building material state of matter depends on two things: The average kinetic power of the particles (temperature) The stamin of the intermolecular."— Presentation transcript:




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1 chapter 11

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2 A building materials state of matter depends on 2 things: The mean kinetic power of the corpuscle (temperature) The toughness of the intermolecular forces (IMFs) between the particles as temperature increases, the particles move farther personally (solid  fluid  gas) since the kinetic power overcomes the IMFs hold the corpuscle together an introduction

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3 defined as the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules, resulted in by partial dues The type of bonding and also structure of the substance room responsible for the form of intermolecular pressure involved and the toughness of that pressure The types of link are: Nonpolar covalent Polar covalent Ionic **You will require to be able to draw a Lewis period structure and also determine whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar Intermolecular forces

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4 This type of IMF is current in every substances yet is only significant when the other types of IMFs are absent This kind of IMF is weaker than the others however is additionally dependent on the total number of electrons in a molecule (so may be strong enough for the substance to exist together a liquid or solid in ~ room temperature) more electrons = much more polarizable, therefore the temporary dipole happens much more often make the London force stronger than other types of IMFs in smaller sized molecules London Dispersion pressures

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5 This kind of pressure is only existing in molecule that have a long-term dipole (polar covalent compounds) This form of force is more powerful than London pressures in link of a similar size This type of force is commonly responsible for a covalent compound being a liquid or solid at room temperature Dipole-Dipole pressures

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6 These are a special type of dipole-dipole force, discovered in molecules that contain H bonded to N, O, or F. The H on one molecule is attracted to the N, O, or F of a surrounding molecule due to the fact that the bonding in ~ the molecule is extremely polar, hydrogen bonds in between two molecule are usually stronger than regular dipole-dipole pressures in compounds of a similar size Hydrogen bond

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7 Ion-dipole forces are responsible for the solubility of ionic compounds: If one ionic compound dissolves in water, the ion- dipole pressure (ion come water attraction) is stronger than the ionic binding holding the crystal together If an ionic link is insoluble in water, the ionic bonds room stronger 보다 the ion-dipole pressure that would pull the ions away indigenous the decision Ion-Dipole pressures

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8 Ionic bond Ionic Bonds are stronger than any type of intermolecular force, which is why ionic compounds are always solids in ~ room temperature with exceptionally high melt points (and high boiling points).

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9 In the body of a liquid, molecules room being traction in all various directions through the intermolecular forces. At the surface of a liquid, molecule are only being traction from the sides and below, thus producing surface anxiety (the tendency of a fluid to minimize it surface ar area). THE more powerful THE INTERMOLECULAR forces IN A LIQUID, THE greater THE surface ar TENSION. Liquids additionally have a resistance come flowing, or viscosity. LIQUIDS WITH strong INTERMOLECULAR pressures TEND TO have actually A higher VISCOSITY than THOSE through WEAKER INTERMOLECULAR FORCES. Viscosity is likewise temperature dependent. Higher Temperature = reduced viscosity heat of vaporization is the energy needed to transform the fluid to a gas. THE more powerful THE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, THE greater THE warmth OF VAPORIZATION. Vapor press is the push exerted by the vapor type of a liquid over the surface of a fluid in a closeup of the door container. THE more powerful THE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, THE lower THE VAPOR push Boiling allude is the temperature in ~ which the liquid will certainly boil (usually at traditional pressure). THE more powerful THE INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, THE greater THE boiling POINT. The liquid State

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10 There are two main varieties of solids: Amorphous – solids in which there is no substantial ordering of the particles Crystalline – solids that screen a extremely ordered setup of particles in a 3D structure well-known as a decision lattice (there are repeating units dubbed unit cells) Five varieties of crystalline solids are recognized Atomic solids – individual atoms are held in place by London dispersion forces. The noble gases are the only well-known atomic solids to form Molecular solids – lattices composed of molecules organized in ar by any form of IMF (water and sugar room examples) Ionic solids – lattices created of ions held together by attraction between oppositely charged ions (all ionic compounds exist as ionic solids) Metallic solids – lattices created by metallic bonding (electrons space delocalized and permitted to relocate throughout the entire sample (all steels exist together metallic solids) Covalent network solids – lattices developed when covalent bonds type one gigantic molecule; these crystals are stronger 보다 all molecule solids and also some ionic solids (examples encompass diamond and also SiO2) The hard State

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11 A heater curve is a graph the the temperature that a device versus the quantity of warmth added. See figure 11.19 on p. 450 for a sample heating curve. On each sloped segment that a heating curve, the sample that matter, in a collection state the matter, is climbing in temperature. The formula for calculating the readjust in enthalpy follow me a sloped segment is : ΔH = (m)(c)(ΔT) (where m = massive of the sample, c = particular heat volume of the sample, and ΔT = the temperature adjust imposed on the sample) One each flat segment of a heater curve, the sample of matter is experience a phase change. The lower level segment corresponds to melting and also the upper level segment synchronizes to boiling. The formula because that calculating the adjust in enthalpy follow me a flat segment is: ΔH = (mol)(ΔH infectious diseases worldwide ) (where mol is the number of moles of the substance and also ΔH infectious diseases world fashion is the molar warm of fusion (if melting) or the molar warm of vaporization (if boiling) web page 451 Sample exercise 11.4 shows just how to calculation ΔH for a set of segment on a heater curve. Heating curves

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12 A phase diagram is a graph representing a substance’s claims of issue to temperature and also pressure.

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The diagram permits us to predict i beg your pardon state of matter a substance will certainly assume in ~ a certain combination of temperature and also pressure. See figures 11.27 and also 11.28 on page 458 girlfriend should be able to Identify three basic areas and also label them together solid, liquid or gas determine the segment that synchronizes to melting-freezing equilibrium identify the segment that coincides to evaporation-condensation equilibrium identify the suggest that coincides to equilibrium between all 3 claims of matter and also all 6 phase changes (the triple point) Identify and define the critical point phase Diagrams

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