The nitrogen family contains the adhering to compounds: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi). All team 15 elements have the electron configuration ns2np3 in their external shell, wherein n is equal to the major quantum number. The nitrogen family is located in the p-block in group 15, as presented below.

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Periodic Trends

All team 15 elements tend to follow the basic periodic trends:

Electronegativity (the atom"s ability of attracting electrons) decreases down the group. Ionization energy (the lot of power required to eliminate an electron native the atom in the gas phase) decreases down the group. Atomic radii increase in dimension down the group. Electron affinity (the capability of the atom to expropriate an electron) decreases down the group. Melting suggest (amount of energy required to rest bonds to adjust a solid phase substance to a fluid phase substance) rises down the group. Boiling suggest (amount of power required to break bonds to change a fluid phase problem to a gas) rises down the group. Metallic character boosts down the group. Element/SymbolAtomic NumberMassElectron ConfigurationCovalent Radius (pm)ElectronegativityFirst Ionizaton energy (kJ/mol)Common physics Form(s) properties of group 15 facets
Nitrogen (N) 7 14.01 1s2 2s2 2p3 75 3.0 1402 Colorless Gas
Phosphorus (P) 15 30.97 3s2 3p3 110 2.1 1012 White hard / Red Solid
Arsenic (As) 33 74.92 3d10 4s2 4p3 121 2.0 947 Yellow solid / Gray Solid
Antimony (Sb) 51 121.76 4d10 5s2 5p3 140 1.9 834 Yellow hard / Silver-White Metallic Solid
Bismuth (Bi) 83 208.98 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 155 1.9 703 Pink-White Metallic Solid

Nitrogen

Nitrogen was uncovered in 1770 through Scheele and also Priestley. This nonmetallic facet has no color, taste or odor and is current in nature as a noncombustible gas. When contrasted with the rest of team 15, nitrogen has the greatest electronegativity which makes it the most nonmetallic that the group. The common oxidation claims of nitrogen space +5, +3, and -3. Nitrogen renders up around 0.002% of the earth"s crust; however, it constitutes 78% of the earth’s atmosphere by volume. Nitrogen has also been found in the environments of Venus and Mars. Venus has a 3.5% nitrogen volume in that is atmosphere and also Mars has actually a 2.7% nitrogen volume in that is atmosphere. Nitrogen is found naturally in animal and also plant proteins and also in fossilized continues to be of ancient plant life. Vital nitrogen-containing minerals room niter, KNO3, and also soda niter, NaNO3​, which are found in desert regions and also are important components of fertilizers. Prior to the process of converting nitrogen right into ammonia was discovered, resources of nitrogen to be limited. Among the procedures of converting nitrogen to ammonia, the Haber-Bosch process, is really important for the manufacturing of nitrogen. Nitrogen has very small solubility in liquids. N2 does no have any type of allotropes.

The unusually steady N2(g) nitrogen gas is the resource in which all nitrogen compounds are at some point derived. N2(g) is stable as result of its digital structure: the bond between the 2 nitrogen atom of N2 is a triple covalent link which is solid and tough to break. The enthalpy change associated with breaking the bonds in N2 is very endothermic: ΔH = +945.4 kJ. Nitrogen gas is used as a refrigerant, steel treatment, and also pressurized gas for oil recovery. Additionally, the Gibbs energies of development of nitrogen compounds present that their formations space nonspontaneous, and the following process does not occur at normal temperatures:

<1/2N_2(g) + 1/2O_2 ightarrow NO_(g)>

with

<ΔG_f= +86.55;kJ, mol^​-1>

The oxides and oxyacids that nitrogen encompass nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NO), and also nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitrous oxide, additionally called “laughing gas,” is supplied in dentist work, boy birth, and also to rise the speed of cars. Nitrogen oxide is uncovered in smog and neurotransmitters. Hydrazine, N2H4​, is a poisonous, colorless liquid the explodes in air. Hydrazine is a an excellent reducing agent, and also methyl hydrazine is generally used as a rocket fuel.


Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic element. The most usual oxidation state of phosphorus is -3. Phosphorus is the eleventh many abundant element, comprising 0.11% of the earth"s crust. The main source of phosphorus compound is phosphorus rocks. Phosphorous is not found pure in nature, but in the type of apatite ores. These encompass compounds such as fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), i beg your pardon in fluoridated water is provided to strengthen teeth, and hydroxylapatite (Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6), a significant component of tooth enamel and bone material. Phosphorus exhibits allotropic forms: the most usual forms in ~ room temperature are white phosphorus and also red phosphorus. White phosphorus is a white, waxy solid that have the right to be cut with a knife. It creates a tetrahedral molecule, P4. White phosphorus is toxic, while red phosphorus is nontoxic. Red phosphorous forms when white phosphorous is heated to 573 Kelvin and also not exposed come air. Red phosphorus is much less reactive 보다 white phosphorus. Red phosphorus has a chain choose polymeric structure, and is an ext stable. Both white and also red phosphorus room incendiary and also have been supplied to make enhance tips, back the use of white phosphorus has actually been largely discontinued because of toxicity. Phosphorus has many applications: phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) is supplied in soaps, detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber nylon, motor oils, insecticides and herbicides; phosphoric acid, H3PO4​, is offered in fertilizers; phosphorus is additionally prevalent in the food industry, supplied in baking powders, instant cereals, cheese, the curing that ham, and in the tartness that soft drinks.


Arsenic

Arsenic is a extremely poisonous metalloid. Since it is a metalloid, arsenic has a high density, moderate thermal conductivity, and a minimal ability to conduct electricity. The oxidation claims of arsenic room +5, +3, +2, +1, and -3. The three allotropic develops of arsenic space yellow, black, and gray; the gray allotrop is the many common. Compounds of arsenic are supplied in insecticides, weed killers, and alloys. The oxide the arsenic is amphoteric, meaning it have the right to act together both one acid and a base. Arsenic is mainly acquired by heating arsenic-containing sulfides. The betterworld2016.orgical formula because that this process is given below:

< FeAsS_(s) ightarrow FeS_(s) + As_(g)>

The (As_(g)) deposits together (As_(s)) which have the right to then be supplied to make other compounds. Arsenic can also be derived by the reduction of arsenic(III) oxide through (CO_(g)).


Antimony

Antimony is additionally a metalloid. The oxidation says of antimony are +3, -3, and +5. Antimony exhibits allotropy; the most stable allotrop is the metallic form, i beg your pardon is comparable in nature to arsenic: high density, moderate heat conductivity, and also a minimal ability to conduct electricity. The oxide of antimony is antimony (III) oxide i beg your pardon is amphoteric, meaning it have the right to act together both one acid and a base. Antimony is acquired mainly native its sulfide ores, and it vaporizes at low temperatures. Together with arsenic, antimony is frequently used in alloys. Arsenic, antimony, and lead type an alloy with preferable properties for electrodes in lead-acid batteries. Arsenic and antimony are also used to create semiconductor products such as GaAs, GaSb, and also InSb in electronic devices.


Bismuth

Bismuth is a metallic element. The oxidation states of bismuth space +3 and also +5. Bismuth is a negative metal (one with significant covalent character) that is comparable to both arsenic and also antimony. Bismuth is typically used in cosmetic products and medicine. Out of the group, bismuth has the shortest electronegativity and ionization energy, which means that it is much more likely to lose an electron 보다 the rest of the team 15 elements. This is why bismuth is the most metallic of team 15. Bismuth is additionally a negative electrical conductor. The oxide that bismuth is bismuth(III) oxide; that acts as a base, as supposed for a metal oxides. Bismuth is acquired as a by-product of the refining of various other metals, permitting other steels to recycle their by-products into bismuth.


References

Petrucci, Ralph H., wilhelm S. Harwood, Geoff E. Herring, and Jeffry D. Madura. General betterworld2016.orgistry : values and contemporary Applications. Upper Saddle River: Prentice room PTR, 2006. Kotz, man C., and Paul Treichel. betterworld2016.orgistry and also betterworld2016.orgical Reactivity. 3rd ed. Brand-new York, CA: Saunders College, 1996. Coppola, Brian D.; Hovick, James W.; Daniels, Douglas S. "I Scream, girlfriend Scream...: A new Twist ~ above the fluid Nitrogen Demonstrations." J. betterworld2016.org. Educ.

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1994, 71, 1080.

Problems

how much the the earth"s crust is made up of nitrogen? just how much that earth"s crust is not consisted of of phosphorus? What kind of link does N2 have? exactly how are red phosphorus and white phosphorus concerned each other? What is the electron construction of arsenic? go bismuth have metallic nature or nonmetallic properties? True or False: nitrogen and also phosphorus space metals. Which group 15 facet has a biggest atomic radius? Which team 15 facet is the strongest reducing agent? True or False: bismuth exhibits the most metallic character. What is the most typical physical kind of nitrogen? What is the process in which nitrogen can convert into ammonia? Which element has the highest very first ionization energy? Complete and balance the adhering to reaction: _N2(g) + _H2(g) -> ____ What is the typical oxidation state of all team 15 elements?

Answers

0.002% that earth"s crust is make of nitrogen. Earth"s crust is made up of 0.11% that phosphorus, so 99.89% of earth"s tardy is not consisted of of phosphorus. N2 has actually a triple covalent bond the is strong and tough to break. Red phosphorus and white phosphorus room both allotrope of phosphorus. Red phosphorus comes from white phosphorus once it is boil to about 573 Kelvin. 3d10 4s2 4p3 Bismuth has metallic properties. False; both nitrogen and also phosphorus space nonmetals. According to routine trends, bismuth has the biggest atomic radius. According to routine trends, bismuth is the the strongest reducing agent since it has actually an electronegativity value of 1.9 i beg your pardon is the same as Antimony however it has a lower ionization power of 703 kJ/mol which way it is more likely to acquire oxidized. True; bismuth is the only metallic aspect of group 15. The most usual physical form of nitrogen is a colorless gas. The process of convert nitrogen right into ammonia is well-known as the Haber-Bosch process. Follow to periodic trends, nitrogen would have the highest an initial ionization energy which means that the does not want to shed an electron the most. N2(g) + 3H2(g) -> 2NH3(g) The common oxidation state because that all team 15 aspects is -3.

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