You are watching: The earth's atmosphere is mainly heated by
The atmospheric problems at a ar within a specific or short time period.- It can be recorded on an hourly basis, or a everyday basis- Weather is a moment"s check out of the reduced atmosphere
The average atmospheric conditions, or weather, end a long duration of time.- In terms of way and other statistical quantities that measure up variability.- Is measured end a geographical region.- an important factor in knowledge the distribution of the world"s population.- Climate is a summary of common weather conditions in one area end a duration of time
*Why execute temperatures differ from location to place? need to understand how heat accumulates top top the surface of the earth.- Solar energy: power from the sun. - the is transformed right into heat, primarily at the earth"s surface and secondarily in the atmosphere.
The quantity of incoming solar radiation.- The quantity of insolation relies on the intensity and also duration that radiation indigenous the sun.*The intensity and also duration is established by the: 1. Edge of the sun"s rays2. Number of daylight hours*The angle of the sun"s rays, the variety of daylight hours and also the 5 following editing variables, determine the temperature at any type of given location:1. Amount of water vapor in the air2. Amount of cloud cover3. Elevation4. Nature the the surface ar of the planet (land or water)5. Degree and direction of waiting movement- Insolation theatre a large part in air temperature- the is no equal anywhere on earth for many reasons, the two most influential reasons includes:1. The planet"s rotation on its axis2. The planet"s change around the sun
*The aircraft of the ecliptic: the aircraft of the earth"s orbit around the sun.*Axis of the earth tilts at ≈ 23.5°from the perpendicular in the direction of the airplane of the ecliptic.- This tilted place remains constant as the earth rotates on this axis when every 24 hours.*While rotating on its axis, the planet is additionally slowly revolving around the sun.- If the earth were not tilted, the direct rays striking just at the equator would lead to latitudinal standardization.- due to the fact that Earth does have a tilt, the ar of the highest incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies throughout the year. *Earth inclination:1. Season changes2. Lengths that days and nights varies during the year
*Spring and Fall Equinoxes (on in march 21 and also September 21, respectively): the vertical rays that the sun at noon space at the equator.*Summer Solstice in north Hemisphere (about June 21): the north Hemisphere tilted toward the sun and the vertical rays of the sunlight at noon space at 23.5°N- The upright rays are at the Tropic of Cancer*Winter Solstice occurs on December 21st: the north Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun and the vertical rays of the sun at noon space at 23.5°S- Tropic that Capricorn
*The tilt the the Earth causes variation in size of days and also nights: one fifty percent of the earth is always illuminated.- at the equator they have actually 12 hrs of light each day that the year.- as you move north or southern of the equator the hours of daylight and darkness increase relying on the direct rays of the sunlight (Check whether the vertical beam is phibìc or south of the equator).*On the "solstices" inside the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle, you have 24 hours of daylight or darkness.- In the summer, daylight boosts to 24 hr native the Arctic Circle come the north Pole (just the opposite native the Antarctic to southern Pole)
*The procedure whereby lot of the unification solar radiation is sent earlier to outer an are or diffused in the troposphere.- absorb & Reflection
*The procedure whereby few of the shortwave solar energy, i beg your pardon is took in by the land and also water, is returned to the environment in the type of long-wave terrestrial radiation.- Earth"s setting is mostly heated through terrestrial radiation- As earth reradiates the heat power it received during the day, (on clear nights once there is no cloud cover come block or diffusive the movement) atmospheric temperatures gradually start to decrease.
*The price of temperature adjust with altitude in the troposphere.- Temperature generally decreases as altitude rises in the troposphere.- The lapse price is NOT constantly constant
*The waiting at lower altitudes is cooler than the waiting at greater altitudes.* Temp. Inversions add to smog:- surface ar air i do not care trapped when warmth air at the surface ar is clogged by the even warmer air of the inversion.
*The push or weight exerted by one airmass.- waiting is a gaseous substance whose weight affects waiting pressure. - There space miles of air over us and its every pushing down, air at the bottom it s okay squeezed developing pressure.*The relationship between temperature and also air pressure: Cold wait is denser, warmth air is lighter. Ex: warm air balloons- heat air: light, walk up, short pressure- Cold air: heavy, walk down, high pressure
*The circulatory activity of rising warmth air and descending cool air.- Convectional wind systems an outcome when surface-heated warmth air rises and also is changed by cool air
- pressure gradient force: A pressure that is the result of the presence of push differences in between different areas- Gradients causes air to circulation from high to short pressure locations as a means of balance.*This procedure of equalization creates wind- The velocity that the wind is in straight proportion to pressure distinctions (Greater push difference, more powerful wind)
*Land and sea breezes: due to differential heating and cooling that land and also water.- when close to large water bodies, warmer air end the soil rises vertically and also is replaced by cooler air from over the water. - Reversed problems exist at night (Warmer air from the water is replaced by cooler waiting from land)*Mountain breezes: in ~ night, gravitation force causes the heavy cooler hill air to descend right into lower warmer valley locations*Valley breezes: throughout the day just the opposite occurs when heat air move up the slopes.
*Humidity: The quantity of water vapor in an waiting mass in ~ a provided time.*Precipitation: Water, in liquid or hard form, that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the earth; when large masses of air rise
The water vapor contents of the air making use of the massive of water vapor contained in a given volume of air.
A comparison of how much water vapor is present in the waiting to exactly how much water vapor would certainly be in the air were saturated.- that is a proportion -
Results indigenous rising, moisture-laden air the cools.- once the dew suggest is reached, condensation and also precipitation occurs.- typical precipitation for summer in tropical and continental climates
This occurs as soon as warm, moisture-laden air is forced to increase over hills or mountains and also cools.- Different conditions exist ~ above the different sides that the elevated structure.- This is typical in areas where mountains and also hills are down wind from oceans and large lakes.*Windward side: the side exposed to prevailing winds i m sorry receives the precipitation*Leeward side ("rain shadow"): the opposite side - which are often dry.- that is dry because the descending waiting warms and absorbs moisture from the land that passes over leaving the locations dry.
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Precipitation that occurs as a an outcome of cool and warm air masses meeting.*Air mass: A body of wait with similar temp, pressure, and humidity attributes throughout.*Front: the zone the separates the two air masses.*Cyclonic (frontal) precipitation is common to the mid-latitudes regions.- when in the tropical regions, the serves together the originator of hurricanes and typhoons.