6.4 Ionic bonding (ESABW)

The nature of the ionic link (ESABX)

When electrons room transferred native one atom to an additional it is referred to as ionic bonding.

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Electronegativity is a residential property of an atom, describing just how strongly it attractive or holds top top electrons. Ionic bonding takes place when the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms is more than ( ext1,7). This commonly happens once a metal atom bonds with a non-metal atom. Once the difference in electronegativity is large, one atom will lure the common electron pair much much more strongly than the other, leading to electrons to be moved to the atom with greater electronegativity. As soon as ionic binding form, a metal donates one or much more electrons, as result of having a short electronegativity, to type a hopeful ion or cation. The non-metal atom has actually a high electronegativity, and therefore conveniently gains electron to type a negative ion or anion. The two ions are then attracted to each various other by electrostatic forces.

Ionic bond

An ionic bond is a type of chemistry bond whereby one or more electrons are transferred native one atom to another.

Example 1:

In the instance of ( extNaCl), the difference in electronegativity in between ( extNa) (( ext0,93)) and ( extCl) (( ext3,16)) is ( ext2,1). Sodium has only one valence electron, when chlorine has seven. Due to the fact that the electronegativity that chlorine is greater than the electronegativity of sodium, chlorine will lure the valence electron of the sodium atom an extremely strongly. This electron from salt is moved to chlorine. Salt loses an electron and also forms an ( extNa^+) ion.


Chlorine profit an electron and forms a ( extCl^-) ion.


Chlorine is a diatomic molecule and also so for it to take part in ionic bonding, it must first break up into two atoms of chlorine. Salt is part of a metallic lattice and the individual atom must very first break far from the lattice.

The electron is as such transferred from salt to chlorine:


Figure 6.1: Ionic bonding in salt chloride

The well balanced equation for the reaction is:

<2 extNa + extCl_2 ightarrow 2 extNaCl>

Example 2:

Another example of ionic bonding bring away place in between magnesium (( extMg)) and oxygen (( extO_2)) to type magnesium oxide (( extMgO)). Magnesium has actually two valence electrons and an electronegativity that ( ext1,31), if oxygen has six valence electrons and also an electronegativity the ( ext3,44). Because oxygen has actually a greater electronegativity, it attractive the 2 valence electrons from the magnesium atom and also these electrons space transferred indigenous the magnesium atom to the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses 2 electrons to type ( extMg^2+), and also oxygen gains two electrons to form ( extO^2-). The attractive force in between the oppositely charged ion is what stop the link together.

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The balanced equation for the reaction is:

<2 extMg + extO_2 ightarrow 2 extMgO>

Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, 2 magnesium atoms will be necessary to combine with one oxygen molecule (which has two oxygen atoms) to develop two units of magnesium oxide (( extMgO)).

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The crystal lattice structure of ionic link (ESABY)

Ionic substances room actually a mix of many ions bonded together into a gigantic molecule. The arrangement of ion in a regular, geometric structure is called a crystal lattice. For this reason in fact ( extNaCl) does no contain one ( extNa) and one ( extCl) ion, but rather a the majority of these 2 ions arranged in a crystal lattice wherein the ratio of ( extNa) come ( extCl) ion is 1:1. The structure of the decision lattice is displayed below.


Figure 6.2: The decision lattice arrangement in ( extNaCl)


Figure 6.3: A space filling version of the salt chloride lattice

Properties that ionic compound (ESABZ)

Ionic compounds have actually a variety of properties:

Ions are arranged in a lattice structure

Ionic solids space crystalline in ~ room temperature

The ionic link is a strong electrostatic attraction. This means that ionic compounds are regularly hard and also have high melting and boiling points

Ionic compounds are brittle and also bonds are damaged along planes as soon as the link is put under press (stressed)