Define bone, cartilage and also the skeletal systemList and also describe the features of the skeleton system

Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, dense connective organization that creates most the the adult skeleton, the support structure of the body. In the locations of the skeleton where bones move (for example, the ribcage and also joints), cartilage, a semi-rigid kind of connective tissue, offers flexibility and also smooth surfaces because that movement. The skeletal system is the body system composed the bones and cartilage and also performs the following crucial functions for the person body:

supports the bodyfacilitates movementprotects interior organsproduces blood cellsstores and also releases minerals and also fat

Support, Movement and also Protection

Figure 10.1.1. Bones support movement.

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skeletal act as levers when muscles span a joint and contract. (credit: Benjamin J. DeLong).

The most evident functions the the skeletal mechanism are the gross functions—those visible by observation. Merely by looking at a person, you deserve to see exactly how the skeleton support, facilitate movement, and also protect the person body.

Just together the steel beams the a building administer a scaffold to support its weight, the bones and cartilage of your skeletal system compose the scaffold the supports the remainder of her body. Without the skeleton system, you would certainly be a limp fixed of organs, muscle, and also skin.

Bones also facilitate motion by serving together points of attachments for her muscles. While part bones only serve together a assistance for the muscles, others also transmit the forces created when her muscles contract. From a mechanical allude of view, skeletal act as levers and also joints serve as fulcrums (Figure 10.1.1). Uneven a muscle spans a joint and contracts, a bone is no going to move.

Bones likewise protect interior organs from injury by covering or bordering them. Your ribs protect your lungs and heart, the skeletal of your vertebral pillar (spine) safeguard your spinal cord, and the skeleton of her cranium (skull) defend your mind (Figure 10.1.2).

Figure 10.1.2. Bones safeguard brain. The cranium surrounds and protects the mind from non-traumatic injury.

Career Connection


An orthopaedist is a medical professional who specialises in diagnosing and treating disorders and also injuries pertained to the musculoskeletal system. Part orthopaedic problems can be treated with medications, exercises, braces, and other devices, however others may be best treated with surgical procedure (Figure 10.1.3).

While the origin of words “orthopaedics” (ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”), literally way “straightening that the child,” orthopaedists can have patient who variety from paediatric come geriatric. In recent years, orthopaedists have even performed prenatal surgery to exactly spina bifida, a congenital defect in i m sorry the neural canal in the spine the the foetus fails to close totally during embryologic development.

Figure 10.1.3. Eight brace. one orthopaedist will sometimes prescribe the use of a brace that reinforces the underlying bone structure it is being offered to support. (credit: Juhan Sonin).

Orthopaedists typically treat bone and joint injuries yet they also treat various other bone problems including curvature the the spine. Lateral curvatures (scoliosis) deserve to be severe sufficient to slip under the shoulder blade (scapula) forcing it up together a hump. Spinal curvatures can likewise be extreme dorsoventrally (kyphosis) resulting in a hunch back and thoracic compression. This curvatures often appear in preteens together the result of bad posture, abnormal growth, or indeterminate causes. Mostly, lock are readily treated by orthopaedists. As human being age, gathered spinal obelisk injuries and diseases favor osteoporosis can likewise lead to curvatures that the spine, for this reason the stooping you occasionally see in the elderly.

Some orthopaedists sub-specialise in sports medicine, i m sorry addresses both an easy injuries, such as a sprained ankle, and complicated injuries, such together a torn rotator cuff in the shoulder. Treatment can variety from exercise to surgery. The Australian Orthopaedic combination (AOA) is a not-for-profit organization that provides specialist education and training, ensuring high standard of orthopaedic care, and also is a leading authority human body who proactively supports clinical research and also orthopaedic humanitarian initiatives in Australia and also worldwide.

Mineral Storage, energy Storage and Haematopoiesis

On a metabolic level, bone tissue performs several an essential functions. Because that one, the bone matrix acts together a reservoir for numerous minerals crucial to the work of the body, particularly calcium and also phosphorus. This minerals, included into bone tissue, can be released back into the bloodstream to preserve levels required to support physiological processes. Calcium ions, for example, are essential for muscle contractions and also controlling the circulation of other ions involved in the infection of nerve impulses.

Bone also serves together a website for fat storage and also blood cell production. The softer connective tissue that fills the interior of most bone is referred to as bone marrow (Figure 10.1.4). There are two species of bone marrow: yellow marrow and also red marrow. Yellow marrow consists of adipose tissue; the triglycerides stored in the adipocytes that the tissue can serve as a source of energy. Red marrow is whereby haematopoiesis—the production of blood cells—takes place. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and also platelets space all created in the red marrow.

Figure 10.1.4. Head that femur showing red and also yellow marrow. The head the the femur includes both yellow and also red marrow. Yellow marrow stores fat. Red marrow is responsible because that haematopoiesis. (credit: change of occupational by “stevenfruitsmaak”/Wikimedia Commons).

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The major functions of the bones room body support, facilitation that movement, protection of inner organs, warehouse of minerals and fat and haematopoiesis. Together, the muscular system and also skeletal system are known as the musculoskeletal system.