Sodium is a silver-colored steel which is soft sufficient to cut with aknife. The is an extremely reactive metal, and is constantly found normally inionic compounds, not in its pure metallic form. Pure sodium metal reactsviolently (and sometimes explosively) with water, creating sodium hydroxide,hydrogen gas, and heat:
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) ——>2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Chlorine is apoisonous, yellow-green gas, with a very sharpodor, and also was provided in gas war during civilization War I.
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Sodium and chlorine react through each other, however, to create a substancethat is acquainted to nearly everyone in the world: sodium chloride,or table salt:
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) ——>2NaCl(s)
It is simple to check out why this reaction takes location so readily as soon as we look at iton an atomic level: sodium has one electron in its outermost (valence)shell, when chlorine has seven electrons in the valence shell. When asodium atom move an electron come a chlorine atom, creating a sodium cation(Na+) and a chloride anion (Cl-), both ions have actually completevalence shells, and are energetically more stable.
The reaction is incredibly exothermic, producing a shining yellow light and agreat deal of heat energy.
In the adhering to demonstrations, a 2.5 liter party is filled with chlorinegas. A coating the sand ~ above the bottom that the bottle absorbs several of theheat energy produced during the reaction, and also prevents the from breaking. Asmall item of freshly-cut metallic salt is inserted in the flask, and then asmall quantity of water is added, which reacts v the sodium and causes it tobecome hot. The hot sodium then reacts v the chlorine, producing abright yellow light, a great deal of warm energy, and also fumes of salt chloride,which store on the walls of the bottle.
In the first video clip, the salt flares up virtually immediately uponreaction through the water, and also "burns out" quickly. (Don"t blink,or you"ll miss out on it.) In the second, water is included twice, to create oneshort flash, followed by a much longer one. (This reaction can additionally be done with molten sodium, however I"ve never ever been braveenough to try that.)
Video Clip 1: REAL, 679 KB
!!! dangers !!!
Do not expose sodium metal to water! The reaction that sodium and also waterproduces hydrogen gas and also heat, i m sorry is no a great combination! Sodiummust be stored under mineral oil, or some other high-molecular weighthydrocarbon.
Chlorine gas is toxic, and also extremely irritating come the eyes and also mucousmembranes.
This reaction evolves a an excellent deal of heat energy; make certain that the flaskhas no cracks in it.
Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, chemistry Demonstrations: A Handbook because that Teachers that Chemistry, Volume 1. Madison: The university of Wisconsin Press, 1983, p. 61-63.
Lee R. Summerlin, Christie L. Borgford, and also Julie B. Ealy, chemistry Demonstrations: A Sourcebook because that Teachers, Volume 2, second ed. Washington, D.C.: American chemistry Society, 1988, p. 56-57.
man Emsley, The Elements, third ed. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1998, p. 56-57, 194-195.
David L. Heiserman, exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books, 1992, p. 43-48, 70-74.
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Martha Windholz (ed.), The Merck Index, 10th ed. Rahway: Merck & Co., Inc., 1983.