While the Atlantic basin remains quiet, the east Pacific container is already up to the the "E" storm, Emilia, and another potentially developing storm ideal on its heels.As i poked around this morning looking in ~ the latest models and satellite imagery, I determined that it to be time to dedicate my betterworld2016.org an are to an additional meteorological "101" session. This time I want to resolve a concern that I regularly receive as an atmospheric sciences professor and meteorologist. Why don"t hurricanes, typhoons, or cyclones form near the equator?

The graphic above clearly reveals the hurricanes (Atlantic basin, E. Pacific), typhoons (W. Pacific), and cyclones (Indian Ocean, Australia) seldom if ever type between 5 deg North and 5 deg southern latitudes, respectively. Theprerequisite conditions for hurricanes are: warm, deep s waters (greater than 80°F / 27°C), an atmosphere cooling quickly with altitude, moist center layers the the atmosphere, low wind shear, and also a pre-existing near surface disturbance. Also if these problems are in place, a tropic cyclone is not likely to kind if that is not at least 300 or so mile from the equator.

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This is because of the lack of the Coriolis force. What is that? that is an noticeable force caused by the rotation of the Earth. The is called after French mathematician Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis that investigated energy in rotating systems. It acts upon moving air and also water in ~ timescales much longer than a job or so. This means that your bathwater spiraling out of the bath tub is not most likely being impacted by the Coriolis force. Earthlings (us) will notification acceleration of an waiting or water mass to the appropriate of forward motion in the northern Hemisphere and also to the left in the southern Hemisphere. Due to the fact that parts that the planet are moving at different speeds (yep), this has a profound result on the Coriolis force. The scijinks.gov website notes,

It takes earth 24 hrs to turn one time. If you space standing a foot to the best of the north or south Pole, that means it would take 24 hrs to relocate in a circle the is around six feet in circumference. That’s about 0.00005 miles every hour.Hop on down to the equator, though, and also things space different. It still takes earth the exact same 24 hrs to do a rotation, however this time we room traveling the entire circumference of the planet, i beg your pardon is around 25,000 mile long. That way you are traveling practically 1040 miles every hour simply by was standing there.

No planet Rotation (left) vs planet Rotation (right) and also resultant Coriolis force.

NOAA/Marshall Shepherd

The Coriolis force is quite different at the equator 보다 it is at the Poles. In fact, the size is zero at the equator. Ns hope friend didn"t have actually lunch yet since I am around to litter a little math in ~ you but don"t worry, it isn"t too bad.Coriolis pressure is expressed as Coriolis Force=2VΩsin A.V is velocity, Ω is angular velocity and A is latitude. If you think ago to high institution math class, the sine the 0 (the latitude at the equator) is 0 also. This is why there is no Coriolis pressure at the equator and why hurricanes rarely kind near the equator. The Coriolis pressure is just too weak to relocate the air approximately low pressure. Waiting prefers to flow from high to short pressure. Follow to NOAA"s NWS Jetstream virtual school, there have actually been a couple of exceptions,

.....Typhoon Vamei which created near Singapore ~ above December 27, 2001. Since tropical cyclone observations started in 1886 in the north Atlantic and also 1945 in the western north Pacific, the previous tape-recorded lowest latitude for a tropic cyclone to be 3.3°N for Typhoon sarah in 1956. V its circulation facility at 1.5°N Typhoon Vamei"s circulation was on both political parties of the equator. U.S. Navy ships report maximum sustained surface ar wind that 87 mph and also gust wind of up to 120 mph.

Professor Paul Roundy at university at Albany-Suny likewise pointed the end the fascinating instance of Cyclone Agni in 2004 together well.

Hopefully the is clear why formation of tropic cyclones is rare close to the equator, but can a hurricane cross the equator if the has already formed beyond 5 degrees latitude? Theoretically, the price is yes but there is a "but."Professor Gary Barnes addressed this an extremely question top top the college of Hawaii department of Meteorology website. The says,

Yes, due to the fact that a well arisen storm has actually plenty of spin that would overcome the weak Coriolis pressure near there. If it overcome the Coriolis force would it is in working versus the early stage direction of the spin, but it would certainly be conquered by what we call the loved one vorticity that the storm. Have actually we seen this occur ? Hurricanes have the right to move south and also get close come the equator but I can not find an instance of one cross in the Atlantic or east Pacific. In the Indian ocean some come closer to pulling off this trick. Why don"t they cross ? The sport in Coriolis through latitude - called the Beta impact - actually will move a hurricane come the NW in the northern hemisphere even if there is no big scale wind advertise the storm follow me ! So, Coriolis not only seems to be a essential ingredient to make a storm, yet it may also pull them away from the equator do the crossing event a difficult one to traction off.

Though about theory possible,practically the is not most likely as meteorologists at Accuweather.com detailed in an digital Q&A.

Hurricane directions by hemisphere.

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Marshall Shepherd

Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, a leading international skilled in weather and also climate, was the 2013 president of American Meteorological culture (AMS) and also is director of the

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Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, a leading international skilled in weather and climate, was the 2013 chairman of American Meteorological culture (AMS) and also is manager of the college of Georgia’s (UGA) Atmospheric sciences Program. Dr. Shepherd is the Georgia athletic Association distinguished Professor and hosts The Weather Channel’s Weather Geeks Podcast, which have the right to be uncovered at all podcast outlets. Prior to UGA, Dr. Shepherd invested 12 years as a study Meteorologist in ~ NASA-Goddard room Flight Center and also was Deputy task Scientist for the worldwide Precipitation measure up (GPM) mission. In 2004, he was honored at the White house with a prestigious PECASE award. He also has received major honors from the American Meteorological Society, American combination of Geographers, and the Captain planet Foundation. Shepherd is frequently sought together an experienced on weather and also climate by significant media outlets, the White House, and Congress. He has actually over 80 peer-reviewed academic publications and also numerous editorials. Dr. Shepherd received his B.S., M.S. And PhD in physics meteorology indigenous Florida State University.