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John Charles Fremont


John Charles Fremont to be an explorer, surveyor, army officer, and also politician who led five western expeditions.

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On January 21, 1813, Fremont to be born in Savannah, Georgia, to Charles Fremon, a French-Canadian schoolteacher and Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter that socially prominent Virginia planter Colonel thomas Whiting. Once his father passed away when john was just 5 years old, the family moved to Charleston, south Carolina, wherein he attend college prior to being expelled for irregular attendance. However, he’d done fine in math and also got a teaching job on a warship.

His career together an explorer began when he left the navy to join the United states Topographical Corps, which later came to be the military Corps that Engineers. In 1838, he was i was delegated a 2nd lieutenant by chairman Van Buren, and also in the year and also the next, he took part in Jean Nicollet’s expedition to the plains in between the upper Mississippi and also Missouri Rivers. Coming to be an expert in geology and also topography, he headed his own exploration to inspection the Des Moines flow in 1841. Top top October 19, 1841, he secretly married Jessie, daughter of thomas H. Benton, also though she parents objected come the union based on her age.

For the next ten years, Fremont spent his time trying out the country between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains and all the method to the Pacific coast (see Fremont’s Expeditions.) His reports gave numerous their an initial knowledge that what is now the countless states that the American West, and his work won for him the nickname that “Pathfinder.”


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John C. Fremont by Ehrgott, Forbriger and Co


Landing in California through his wife, Fremont led lot of the rebellion in Alta that led to the state’s admission to the Union. Throughout the Mexican-American War, he would be appointed civil governor by Commodore Robert Stockton. Problem brewed within the American ranks as soon as Fremont refuse to recognize Brigadier general Stephen Kearny’s authority to organize a brand-new territorial government. ~ Washington D.C. Shown Kearny’s authority, Fremont was arrested for mutiny, disobedience, and also improper conduct. Kearny would return through Fremont to fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in respectable of 1847 because that trial. Fremont was uncovered guilty; however, his sentence to be commuted by chairman Polk, and he to be reinstated.

When gold was found on the land that purchased in the Sierra foothills; he ended up being a millionaire. That then moved to politics, offer as one of California’s very first senators. The first Republican national Convention in 1856 nominated him for the presidency, and he obtained 114 electoral votes, however James Buchanan received 174 and went ~ above to success the election.

Soon after the Civil war began, he was made a major-general and assigned come the command the the western Department, v headquarters in ~ St. Louis, Missouri. On respectable 31, 1861, he proclaimed martial law and also the emancipation of the servants belonging come those in arms against the government. Chairman Abraham Lincoln endorsed the proclamation, except that component concerning emancipation, but this, Fremont refuse to rescind, and it was ultimately annulled by order of the president. This and other complaints led to him to be relieved of his command, yet the complying with spring, he was put in command that the mountain district in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. As soon as his command was made a part of basic John Pope’s army of Virginia, Fremont request to it is in relieved. His inquiry was granted, and this finished his military career.

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Afterward, he lost his luck through poor investments through railroads and moved to Arizona, wherein he was made territorial branch from 1878 come 1883. In 1887 Fremont went back to California. Basic Fremont to be the author of various works, most of castle relating to his explorations. He died on July 13, 1890, in brand-new York City.

Also See:

Exploration that America

Explorers and Frontiersmen

Fremont’s expeditions of the American West

Trappers, Traders & Pathfinders

Sources:

Colorado EncylclopediaGeorgia HistoryThrapp, Dan L.; Encyclopedia the Frontier Biography, volumes I-III; university of Nebraska Press, 1988.Wikipedia