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Corn water usage will fluctuate throughout the season depending upon weather conditions and crop development stage (Figure 1). Components that will affect ET and irrigation decisions include:Crop growth stage. Chop Crop water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), is the movement of water with evaporation (E) from the soil and also plant surfaces and transpiration (T) with the plant. Transpiration is the motion of water from the soil right into plant roots, with plant stems and leaves, and earlier out right into the atmosphere. Transpiration is vital concept since yield is related to the quantity of water a plant transpires. An knowledge of as soon as corn calls for water the most for maximum yield potential can assist guide much more efficient watering applications.
Corn water usage will fluctuate throughout the season depending on weather conditions and also crop expansion stage (Figure 1). Determinants that will influence ET and irrigation decision include:Crop growth stage. Crop water demands vary depending on growth stage. Young tree transpire much less than bigger plants due to a smaller leaf surface area. Corn calls for the many water just prior to and also during the reproductive growth stages.
Relative maturity. Longer-season corn products will require more water end the growing season 보다 short-season products. If longer-season corn products use more water, castle may additionally have a greater yield potential if heat units and also adequate water space available.
Weather conditions. The capability of the environment to evaporate water is the driving pressure for soil water evaporation and also transpiration. Daily ET is influenced by solar radiation, waiting temperature, loved one humidity, and wind. High wait temperatures, low humidity, clean skies, and also high winds reason a huge evaporative demand.
Soil water hold capacity and also soil water content. A soil’s water stop capacity suggests the maximum amount of water that will certainly be easily accessible for plant use as soon as the floor water profile is complete (field capacity). Fine textured soils have the right to hold more water 보다 coarse textured soils. As the soil dries, it becomes more difficult for plants to extract water. At ar capacity, plants usage water at the maximum rate. Tree use much less water together the water content of the soil drops.
Residue management / Tillage system. Minimizing floor disturbance native tillage and increasing surface crop residue have the right to reduce floor water evaporation. Reduced tillage practices, an especially no-till and strip-till, can aid the soil capture and retain more moisture. Tillage boosts the exposed surface ar area the the floor for evaporation and increased runoff, destroys chop residue the can record rain and snow, and also may mitigate water infiltration due to the fact that of compaction that have the right to be produced during the tillage process. Surface residue helps rise infiltration rates by limiting the lot of surface sealing produced by rainfall and also irrigation droplets.
Surface residue likewise helps reduce runoff by producing obstructions the limit water movement and allow more time for water come seep right into the floor profile
Seasonal water requirements for high-yielding corn selection from 20 to 30 inches per year relying on planting date, maturity group, location, and also weather.1 Corn calls for the many water during the beforehand reproductive growth stages (Table 1), which are also the most sensitive step to water stress. When corn does not receive enough water to meet ET demands during this vital water usage period, far-reaching reductions in yield have the right to occur.
Planting. Corn uses very little water throughout the seedling stage. Irrigation is no recommended automatically following planting in areas where earlyseason precipitation and also stored soil moisture space adequate for seedling emergence and also early tree development. Without the tree canopy to the shade the soil surface, much of the watering would be lost to evaporation. Farmers should rely top top stored soil moisture and also natural precipitation as lot as feasible during the early growth stages.
Vegetative stages. The vegetative step of corn are often considered the least sensitive stages to water stress. If watering supplies space limited, the vegetative step may provide an chance to reserve irrigation for the reproductive stages wherein it will have the most affect on productivity potential.
Early reproductive stages. Water stress need to be avoided during the reproductive step (tasseling, silking, and pollination). Water stress during silking can have the greatest affect on yield potential as result of desiccation that the silks and also pollen grains, which will result in poor pollination.2 the is essential to know when crop water requirements will become greater than precipitation, which regularly occurs during the an essential reproductive periods. Arrangement ahead by learning the volume of the irrigation system come ensure that enough water is obtainable to the crop through this stages.
Dough through dent stages. Corn water use rates steadily decrease from the dough stage through maturity because of a lower evaporative demand (shorter days, lower temperatures, reduced solar radiation), a lose of transpiring leaf area as reduced leaves start to die, and also changes in plant physiology.2 in ~ the start of the dough stage, corn will certainly still require about 1/3 of its seasonal water necessity (Table 2). For optimal grain development and maximum productivity potential, corn requires water best up till physiological maturity. Water stress during the dough v dent stages deserve to accelerate maturity, prohibiting kernels from getting to their complete potential size and weight.3
Maturity. After physiological maturity (black layer), water is no much longer needed because that kernel growth and no yield benefits deserve to be accomplished with additional irrigation. Enabling soils to dry at maturity is a good strategy for staying clear of compaction that deserve to be resulted in by harvest machinery top top wet soils.
1 Schneekloth, J. And also Andales, A. Seasonal water needs and also opportunities for limited irrigation for Colorado crops. No. 4.718. Colorado State university Extension. Www.ext.colostate.edu.
2 Kranz, W.L., Irmak, S., van Donk, S.J., Yonts, C.D., and Martin, D.L. 2008. Watering management because that corn. NebGuide G1850. College of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension.
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3 Lamm, F.R. And also Abou Kheira, A.A. 2009. Corn watering macromanagement in ~ the seasonal limits – initiating and terminating the watering season. Proceedings that the 2009 CPIC. Colby, Kansas, Feb 24-25.