Guide E-216 Nancy C. Flores College the Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, brand-new Mexico State University

Author: extension Food technology Specialist, department of expansion Home Economics, brand-new Mexico State University.

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Introduction

>Cheesemaking techniques vary depending upon the intended final use or intake of the cheese. Cheese can have widely varying characteristics.

Italian mozzarella-type cheese, offered in pasta dishes, must have an excellent melting quality and also mild flavor. Hard cheese such as Romano and Parmesan have to be dry with distinct flavor. Mexican cheese, frequently used in fried foods, have to be secure at high temperatures. The range among cheeses has occurred from differences in milk quality, diversity amongst native microflora (microorganisms naturally emerging in a provided region) and also differences in taking care of during processing. In north America cheese is commonly made from the milk of cows (Bos taurus) or goats (Capra aegagrus). In India cheese is frequently made that milk indigenous water buffalo (Bubalus arnee). Yak (Bos grunniens) cheese is made in the interior of Asia.

Cow"s milk consists of 88% water with 3.7% fat, 3.4% protein, 4.8% sugar (lactose), and also 0.7% minerals and vitamins (USDA, 2005). The process of make cheese entails forming a curd indigenous milk solids such as fats, protein and minerals that are separated and concentrated (Hill, 2006). The discharged liquid, whey, consists of most of the lactose, water, an easy proteins, minerals and vitamins (Hill, 2006). Around 10 pounds (1.25 gallons) that milk are compelled to do one lb of cheese.

Making cheese is a dynamic process, influenced by time, temperature and also the bacterial society (lactic mountain bacteria) and coagulating enzyme (rennet) the are offered to concentrate and also separate the casein (milk protein) and also fat native the whey. Exception to this include cheeses such together Queso Fresco or Queso Blanco (traditionally eaten in Latin American countries) and also Paneer (traditionally eaten in India), which are made without bacterial societies or rennet. This cheeses space made by curdling warm milk by including an acid such as vinegar or fruit juice. This type of fresh cheese is basic to make and has greater yield since all the whey proteins normally lost are consisted of in the cheese.

The enzyme rennet reasons casein to kind chains and to construct a mesh-like network or gel, trapping water and also fat. This semisolid gel is the curd. Once the gel is firm enough, it is reduced into small pieces and, after ~ cooking, the whey is removed. The whey may be partially drained indigenous the curd and also the curd washed v water to boost its humidity content. The temperature throughout cooking and handling that the curd affects the texture of the curd and also the form of final product. When the curd has reached the desired moisture and also acidity, salt can be added. Salting might be completed through brine, similar to Gouda; surface ar salt, similar to Feta; or dry salt, similar to Cheddar. After salting, the curd may be partly drained and again washed with water to boost the moisture content. Once the curds have reached the preferred moisture and acidity (pH), the whey is separated from the curd.

The cheese curd formed is a an outcome of bacterial action on lactose converted to lactic acid. The acid acts together a preservative, clears water from the cheese curd, and also develops cheese texture (Hill, 2006). Initially the enzymes from native microflora produce the odor components, which readjust during aging.

Commercial cultures have been arisen to produce a details cheese type. Yogurt and buttermilk save live bacteria that have the right to be offered as a culture to make cheese.

Once the whey is removed, the curd is permitted to rod together, forming a mat. The mat is transferred to a hoop or mold lined v cheesecloth, which contributes to the last shape. The mold deserve to be pressed to type a thick cheese (Cheddar) or have the right to be left to settle under its own weight to have actually an open texture (Feta).

Soft cheese deserve to be make at home without specialized equipment. Due to the fact that soft cheese includes over 45% water, the is extremely perishable and has a refrigerated life the only 5 to 7 days.

Food safety and security Concerns

There are four significant pathogens linked with fresh cheese. These can reason foodborne illness. Lock are: Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and also Staphylococcus aureus. This pathogenic bacteria are managed by good sanitation that equipment and also food call surfbetterworld2016.org, proper cooking, cooling and handling of cheese curds during processing, and proper hand washing.

Sanitation

wash hands* and also all equipment with soapy detergent before and also after use. rinse all equipment with clean potable water, removing every soapy residue. boil all cheese-making equipment in between uses. Soak all cheese-making equipment in a bleach-water solution for 2 minutes, before and also after use. Maintain energetic chlorine in bleach water (see below). for best-quality cheese, use new cheesecloth every time you make cheese. (Sterilize cheesecloth by an initial washing, then boiling or soaking 2 minutes in bleach-water.) Squeaky clean is clean. If you have the right to feel a residue top top the equipment, that is no clean.

* Wash hands whenever hand touch dirty or soiled surfbetterworld2016.org, ~ a sneeze or cough, after bathroom use, after eating, or after taking care of raw milk. Hands must be dried completely with a clean disposable document towel.

Bleach-water

add one tablespoon of standard family bleach to one gallon the water. Do a brand-new bleach-water equipment each time you make cheese. Test chlorine activity of bleach-water on a consistent basis making use of litmus test record (available in ~ hardware stores). Remake bleach-water if it becomes cloudy through food particles. Bleach-water recipe can be doubled if necessary.

Pasteurization of life Milk

The pasteurization of raw milk is a delicate procedure dependant ~ above temperature and time. That is recommended the the life milk be pasteurized by heater at 60–62.5°C (140–145°F) for 30 minutes. This warmth treatment will ruin pathogenic bacteria the could cause foodborne illness. After pasteurization the milk is cooled to 32–37°C (89.6–98.6°F). Climate the cheese making process may begin.

usage a cooking thermometer in the milk to measure temperature. Temperature manage is really important. Do not heat milk over 145°F. It may adjust the texture and flavor the the cheese. Temperature under 140°F will certainly not death harmful bacteria.

Note: Pasteurized milk available at the grocery store has actually been heat processed and also homogenized for a ready-to-drink milk product. This affects milk protein and also fat texture. Although homogenized milk have the right to be used, result cheese will have a various texture 보다 the timeless cheese.

Selecting Milk and also Cultured Products

The top quality of the cheese depends highly on the quality of the life milk and also cultures provided to do the cheese. High quality is affected by freshness, or age and also microbial standing of the raw milk, and by the wellness of the dairy products cow. Cultures, as currently mentioned, have the right to be obtained directly from a supplier or indirectly from yogurt or buttermilk. Regardless of the source of milk and cultures, treatment must be taken to handle the cultures properly to prevent microbial air pollution that may affect the actions of the culturing agent.

The texture and also flavor the cheese are determined initially by the culturing agents, by the fat contents of the milk product used, and also by the lot of humidity left in the product. The milk assets used in cheese-making add both fat and also moisture. Therefore, once the goal is to do a low-fat cheese, that is necessary to consider that the flavor, texture and moisture content of a cheese made from low-fat milk will be much various than those that a cheese product through a higher fat content. Table 1 offers information top top the fat contents of miscellaneous milk products that may be used in do cheese.

Table 1. Fat content of typical milk commodities (USDA Nutrient Database, 2005)

Dairy Product Fat g/cup (g/240 g)
Whole milk 8
2% milk 5
1% milk 2.5
Skim milk 0.5
Condensed milk 27
Buttermilk 2.2
Half "n" half 28
Heavy cream 88
Light cream 40
Yogurt, plain, nonfat 0.4
Yogurt, plain, lowfat 3.5
Yogurt, plain, whole 7.4

Equipment because that Making Soft Cheese

Thermometer v a temperature variety of 40 come 165°F. Large dual boiler with about a 5-quart volume for 1 gallon of milk. (Two huge cooking pots of various sizes can be substituted because that a dual boiler.) Spatula long sufficient to with the bottom the the double boiler. Long-handled spoon. Long-bladed knife. Digital timer or easy-to-read clock. Measuring cups, teaspoons. Cheesecloth or muslin, tea towel. Quart strainer to support draining cloth. Creates or molds for shaping the cheese. A homemade press can be made from pan-shaped colander and a salad bowl or a "follower." (Figure 1) A 1-pound coffee can (smooth sided) can additionally be used. Beat holes in the bottom the the have the right to from the inside the end so a cloth liner will not capture on the metal edges. Do a follower out of the deserve to lid in the very same way. A press or machine to put pressure on the cheese. Cans or glass jars the fit snugly in the coffee deserve to may be used for this purpose. Brining container do of glass or heavy plastic. Plastic bucket (2-gallon capacity) because that whey discharge.

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Figure 1. Coffee can cheese press. (Taken from C. McDaniel and also P. Kendall, 2004)

Recipes

No-rennet Queso Blanco (Latin American White Cheese)

Recipe adjusted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Heat-acid or no-rennet Queso Blanco is a white, semi-hard cheese do without society or rennet. That is consumed fresh and also may be flavored v peppers, herbs and also spices. The is considered a "frying cheese" definition it does no melt and may it is in deep fried or grilled. Queso Blanco can likewise be do by renneting totality milk with little or no bacterial culture.

Ingredients:

4.6 fl. Oz. (137 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 9.2 fl oz. (274 ml) distilled water 1.0 gallon (3.76 L; 8 lb; 3.63 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk 1 tespoon (4.6 g) salt flavors to taste

Procedure:

warm milk to 176°F (80°C) for 20 minutes. add vinegar (5% acetic acid) come water and also then add slowly to the hot milk till the whey is semi-clear and the curd particles begin to mat together and become contempt stretchy. Girlfriend should have the ability to stretch a item of curd about 0.39 customs (1 cm) prior to it breaks. It might not be essential to include all the the vinegar. separate the curd by filtering v a fabric bag until free whey is removed. work in salt and spices to taste. push the curd (high pressure is no required). parcel curd in boilable bags (vacuum package if possible) and also place in boil water because that 5 minute to sterilize the surface and also prevent mould growth. Queso Blanco may keep for several weeks if effectively packed and stored in a refrigerator, yet should be consumed in together fresh a state together possible.

Ricotta Cheese

Recipe adapted from Hill, A.R. (2006)

Ricotta cheese is likewise made by heat-acid precipitation of proteins from blends of milk and whey. The is supplied in lasagna or eaten as a next dish along with the main course.

Ingredients:

1 quart (940 ml) vinegar (5% acetic acid) 25 gallons ( 94 L; 200 lb; 90.72 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized whey 2.5 gallons (9.4 L; 20 lb; 9.07 kg) pasteurized entirety milk

Procedure:

include whole milk to fresh whey, then warm to 185°F (85°C). Heating need to begin instantly after the whey is removed from the curd come prevent additional acidification by the lactic acid bacteria. Some little curd particles will certainly form. slowly add around 2 teaspoons that vinegar per quart of whey with gentle agitation. You will certainly see an ext curd particles forming and the whey will become less "milky." Pour into a towel to different the curds. After ~ the curd is dripped dried it is ready to eat.

Note: More vinegar might be included depending on the quantity of milk used. Continue including vinegar until the whey is rather clear. By adding the vinegar slowly over a time period of around 5 minutes you will obtain much better quality curd and it will be easier to recognize when to stop.

Cheese Made v Rennet

Rennet is obtainable as a tablet or liquid. One teaspoon liquid rennet is indistinguishable to one tablet. Either form must be completely dissolved in cold madness water. Difficult water need to be neutralized by including 1/4 cup milk to water prior to the enhancement of rennet.

SAFE Queso Fresco (Fresh Cheese)

Recipe adapted from "Abuela project," Washington State university (2002).

This recipe to be designed to change Queso Fresco made through raw milk after an increase in Salmonella outbreaks in Yakima County, Washington. Queso Fresco has a grainy, soft crumbly texture and a mild, new flavor. This cheese can be consumed in crumbly pieces in salads but holds up well to heating, both baking and also broiling.

Ingredients:

One tablet rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup tap water One quart (0.95 L; 2.15 lb; 911 g) cultured buttermilk for culture Two quarts (1.89 L; 4.3 lb; 1.9 kg) heat-treated or pasteurized milk 7 teaspoons (35 ml) white vinegar (5% acidity) 2 teaspoons (9.3 g) salt

Procedure:

Mix one quart cultured buttermilk with two quarts heat-treated or pasteurized milk. include 7 teaspoons white vinegar to the milk mixture. Mix well. warm milk come 90°F (32.22°C). Eliminate pan from the heat. include rennet mixture and mix for about 2 minutes. Let was standing for 30–40 minutes till curd is firm. reduced curd into 1-inch cubes and let stand for about 5 minutes. heat curds and whey to 115°F (46.11°C) without stirring. Eliminate pan indigenous heat, then let was standing for 5 minutes. to water mix with cheesecloth and permit whey to drain for 5 minutes. type curd into a ball and twist the cheesecloth tenderness to squeeze the end the whey. rest up curds into a key and include 2 teaspoons of salt. Mix in salt and also let stand for 5 minutes, then squeeze again together before. place curd in mold to form the cheese overnight in the refrigerator. remove cheese from mold and package in an air-tight container. store cheese refrigerated throughout storage.

Neufchatel

Recipe adapted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendall (2004)

Neufchatel (New-sha-TEL) is a milky-white cheese with a soft, smooth texture and is short in fat if made with reduced-fat or fat-free milk.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.6 lb; 3.9 kg) pasteurized milk (any level of fat) One tablet computer rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup insanity water1/2 cup (4 fl oz; 114 g) new cultured unsalted buttermilk or 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh plain yogurt because that culture3 teaspoons (14 g) salt (optional)

Procedure:

placed 1 gallon of milk right into the upper component of a double boiler. Include enough water in the bottom of twin boiler to protect against milk indigenous scorching. Line in buttermilk or yogurt and warm gradually to 92 to 94°F (33.33 come 34.4°C). Preserve this temperature variety through actions 2 and also 3. include rennet mixture and stir right into milk for 2 come 3 minutes. Permit milk to collection undisturbed for around 30 minute or until a firm gelatin forms. To test for curd formation, reduced a slot in the curd v a metal spatula, slip under the curd and lift slightly. If the reduced in the curd breaks clean, the is all set for action 3. cut the curd into about 1-inch cubes. Line gently and also continuously for 20 come 30 minute to assist firm curds. Keep the temperature selection 90 come 94°F (32.22 come 34.4°C). to water off whey (yellow liquid). Permit the curds to settle, and also dip the end the staying whey. add 1 tespoon salt, mix gently. Wait 5 minutes and also mix in the 2nd teaspoon salt. Wait 5 an ext minutes and also mix in the critical teaspoon salt. divide the curds into two batches and also proceed as follows for each batch. Line two coffee cans with clean cheesecloth or muslin. Place fifty percent of the cheese curd inside each lined can. Wrinkles the towel over the height and add the follower. apply pressure by pushing with a weight, such as a number 303 can of food, until the surface ar is smooth (2 come 4 hours). Carry out this in the sink to enable the whey to drain out the the cans. remove the formed cheese and the cloth. Pave the cheese tightly in plastic or in waxed record and save in refrigerator. It will keep for 7 to ten job under refrigeration. It deserve to be frozen for four to 6 months. However, freeze lowers the high quality of the cheese.

Cream Cheese

Recipe adapted from C. McDaniel and also P. Kendal (2004)

Cream cheese has actually a mild, smooth texture and also a slim citrus flavor well balanced with buttery cream. Cream cheese have the right to be blended with fruit and also seasonings, offered as a dive or spread, or offered in desserts such together cheesecake.

Ingredients:

3 1/2 quarts (3.3 L; 6.45 lb; 2.92 kg) pasteurized entirety milk 1 pint (473.2 ml) pasteurized whipping cream 3/4 to 1 cup (6-8 fl oz; 177 ml; 242 g) fresh buttermilk because that culture1 1/2 teaspoons (7.12 g) salt (optional) One tablet computer rennet or 1 tsp fluid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup madness water

Procedure:

place milk, cream and starter in dual boiler. Heat to 85°F (29.4°C). add rennet mixture, climate stir gently because that 4 minutes. sheathe the milk and also let was standing for 1 hour or until the whey consist of the curd and also breaks clean native the side of the pan. Maintain a temperature that 85°F (29.4°C). cut curd into 1-inch cubes and permit to was standing undisturbed for 5 minutes. to water mixture right into a muslin bag or cheesecloth-lined colander. Drain overnight in the refrigerator. v a wooden spoon, work in 1 1/2 teaspoons salt. Package and also store cream cheese in the refrigerator.

Pizza Cheese

Recipe adjusted from C. McDaniel and P. Kendall (2004)

Also known as mozzarella, this new cheese is really mild in flavor and also adds texture to cooked dishes. New cheese can be stored in water yet must be eaten within two days.

Ingredients:

1 gallon (3.79 L; 8.63 lb; 3.91 kg) 2% milk OR 2 quarts (1.9 L; 4.3lb; 1.95 kg) totality milk plus 2 quarts skim milk 1/4 cup (2 fl oz; 57 g) fresh, level yogurt One tablet rennet or 1 tsp liquid rennet liquified in 1/2 cup insanity waterBrine: usage 2 pounds (907 g) of salt every gallon (3.78 l) that water

Procedure:

warm milk to 90°F (32.22°C) and add yogurt. Stir gradually for 15 minute while maintaining this consistent temperature. include rennet mixture and also stir for 3 come 5 minutes. Cover, preserving temperature at 90°F (32.22°C). Permit to stand until coagulated, around 30 minutes. reduced curd into 1/2-inch (1.27cm) cubes. Enable to stand for 15 minutes through occasional stirring. progressively increase temperature to 118°F (47.77°C) end a duration of 45 minutes. Organize this temperature for an additional 15 minutes. (Total time because that this action is 1 hour.) permit curd to settle under whey. Remove whey and also transfer the mat the curd come a level pan that deserve to be preserved warm. Perform not cut mat, yet turn it end every 15 minutes for a 2-hour period. Mat have to be tight as soon as finished. cut the mat into long strips 1 come 2 inches (2.5–5 cm) wide. Placed curd in hot water (180°F; 82°C). Making use of wooden spoons, tumble and also stretch that under water until it i do not care elastic, about 15 minutes. eliminate curd from warm water and shape the by hand right into a ball or a loaf. Ar cheese in cold water (40°F; 4.4°C) for roughly 1 hour. eliminate cheese native cold water and also put it into a saturated salt solution. Come prepare salt brine, save the brine cold (40 come 50°F; 4.4 come 9.9°C) when the cheese is in it. Excess salt will stay on the bottom, i beg your pardon is normal. Due to the fact that a brine systems is corrosive, location in a heavy plastic, glass or pottery container. Cover any kind of exposed areas of cheese v dry salt. Leave cheese in the brine for 24 hours. eliminate cheese from brine and also let it dried for several hours. Wrap in plastic wrap and refrigerate. This cheese might be used immediately or stored under refrigeration because that one week.

Resources accessible Online

Dairy connection Incorporated http://www.dairyconnection.com/ This site sells products valuable for making and also customizing cheese: coloring, cheese wax, cheese ladles, cheese cloths, draining mats, and thermometers.

Danlac.com http://www.danlac.com/ here you can uncover rennet and other enzymes, equipment, starter cultures and information on cultures.

Glengarry Cheesemaking and Dairy Supply http://glengarrycheesemaking.on.ca/ below you can uncover cheese presses, molds, rennet, ripening racks, drying racks, cheese vats, pasteurizers (both commercial and non-commercial), curd cutters, coatings, waxes, kits, videos, etc.

Junket http://www.junketdesserts.com/ This site offers information top top rennet products and recipes for soft cheese and custard desserts.

Moorlands Cheesemakers http://www.cheesemaking.co.uk/ here you can buy cheese making kits of all sorts, as well as molds, rennet etc., return this site is based in the joined Kingdom, shipments can be accepted in the U.S..

New England Cheesemaking it is provided Company http://www.cheesemaking.com/ This website is for non-commercial cheese makers. They offer many complete kits for cheese making.

See more: Calories In One Slice Of Round Table Pepperoni Pizza, Round Table Pizza Nutrition

References

Hill, A.R. (2006). Cheese. University of Guelph. Available at: http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/cheese2.html

McDaniel, C. And Kendall, P. (2004). Making Soft Cheeses. Colorado State university Extension file no. 9.337. Obtainable at: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/foodnut/09337.html

U.S. Department of Agriculture, agricultural Research Service. (2005) USDA nationwide Nutrient Database for conventional Reference, relax 18. Nutrient Data Laboratory house Page. Easily accessible at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl

Washington State college (2002). Fresh cheese do safely. Pacific Northwest expansion publication. Available at: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/pnw0539/pnw0539.pdf

To find more resources for her business, home, or family, visit the university of Agricultural, Consumer and also Environmental scientific researches on the World broad Web at betterworld2016.org.

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