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12 VOLT CHARGER accuse
12 volt charger modern technology has preserved pace with the microprocessor revolution, and so current battery charging philosophy supplies 3 phase (or 2 or 4 stage) microprocessor regulated charging profiles. These room "smart chargers", and also quality units usually are not found in discount stores. The 3 stages or actions in lead/acid battery charging room bulk, absorption, and also float (or finish shut turn off in some cases). Qualification, or equalization are sometimes considered another stage. A 2 stage unit will have actually bulk and float stages. It is essential to use battery manufacturer"s references on charging procedures and voltages, or a top quality microprocessor controlled charger to preserve battery capacity and service life.
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The larger 12 volt charger would feature a solved charging voltage, high sufficient to "force" power (amps) right into the battery. The lower the early stage battery voltage (state of discharge), the easier this forcing process is, for this reason you may see the amp meter (if therefore equipped) run approximately the charger"s maximum output amperage, and stay there a while. As battery resistance rises, together it does together the state of charge increases, the harder it is for the 12 volt charger to pressure the amps in, so the amp price decreases. Eventually, the charger will a suggest where it"s output voltage can"t force any much more into the battery, for this reason current nearly stops, but depending on wherein this voltage point is, it might be high enough to overcharge end time, or save the battery in the gassing stage, dry out a flooded type battery. These chargers need to be monitored for this reason, and disconnected when the amp meter drops to the short point.
The "smart chargers" are profiled with modern-day charging viewpoint in mind, and additionally take information from the battery to provide maximum charge advantage with minimum observation. Some gel cell and AGM batteries may require special setups or chargers. True gel batteries typically require a details charge profile, and a gel specific or gel selectable or gel suitable charger is dubbed for. The top charging voltage for gelatin batteries is 2.3 come 2.36 volts every cell, and for a 12 volt charger this works out come 13.8 to 14.2 volts, i m sorry is lower than a wet or AGM kind battery needs for a full charge. Exceeding this voltage in a gel battery can reason bubbles in the electrolyte gel, and also permanent damage, as the bubbles carry out not dissipate as soon as the end voltage problem ceases.
Three phase Battery Charging
The BULK stage in a 12 volt charger involves about 80% of the recharge, wherein the charger present is held constant (in a continuous current charger), and also voltage increases. The appropriately sized charger will offer the battery as much existing as it will certainly accept approximately charger volume (25% of battery capacity in amp hours), and also not advanced a wet battery end 125 F, or one AGM or gel (valve regulated) battery end 100 F. The target voltage for a 12 volt charger because that AGM or part flooded battery is 2.4 to 2.45 volts per cell, i m sorry is 14.4 to 14.7 volts. Some flooded cells will tolerate over 15 volts.
The ABSORPTION stage (the remaining 20%, approximately) in the AGM/flooded 12 volt charger has the charger holding in ~ the absorb voltage (between 14.4 VDC and also 14.7 VDC, depending on charger collection points) and also decreasing the existing until the battery is fully charged. If the battery won"t hold a charge, or the present does no drop ~ the supposed recharge time, the battery may have some irreversible sulphation.
The FLOAT stage is where the fee voltage is lessened to about 2.25 volts per cell, which is around 13.5 VDC and also held constant, while the current is lessened to less than 1% of battery capacity. This mode have the right to be provided to preserve a fully charged battery indefinitely. Part chargers shut off rather of keeping a float voltage, and also monitor the battery, initiating a charge cycle if necessary.
Recharge time can be approximated by splitting the amp hours to be replaced by 90% of the rated calculation of the charger. For example, a 100 amp hour battery v a 10 % discharge would need 10 amps replaced. Using a 5 amp 12 volt charger, we have actually 10 amp hours/(.9x5) amps = 2.22 hour recharge time estimate. A deeply discharged battery deviates from this formula, requiring much more time per amp to be replaced.
Recharge frequency references vary from experienced to expert. It appears that depth that discharge affect battery life an ext than frequency the recharge. Basically, lead mountain batteries, consisting of the sealed species (AGM and also Gel) favor to it is in kept completely charged as soon as possible. Because that example, recharging when the equipment is not going come be offered for a while (meal rest or whatever), may keep the average depth of discharge over 50% because that a organization day. This basically applies to battery applications where the average depth the discharge falls below 50% in a day, and also the battery can be fully recharged once during a 24 hour period. This is dubbed "opportunity charging".
Equalization is essentially a managed over charge. Some charger manufacturers speak to the height voltage the charger attains at the end of the bulk mode (absorption voltage) an equalization voltage, however technically it"s not. Higher capacity wet (flooded) batteries sometimes advantage from this procedure, specifically the physically high batteries. The electrolyte in a wet battery deserve to stratify end time, if not cycled occasionally. In equalization, the voltage is carried up above typical optimal charging voltage (to 15 come 16 volts in a 12 volt charger) well right into the gassing stage, and also held for a addressed (but limited) period. This stirs up the chemistry in the entire battery, "equalizing" the strength of the electrolyte, and knocking off any loosened sulphation that may be ~ above the plates.
The building of the sealed batteries (AGM and also Gel), all but eliminates any kind of stratification, and also most every manufacturers that this kind do not recommend that (advising against it). Some manufacturers (notably Concorde) perform a procedure, but observing voltage and time specifications are an important to avoid battery damage.
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12 Volt Charger Sizes
A 12 volt charger deserve to be had actually from a low milliamp output (100, 200, 500 milliamps), approximately 90 amps, that will plug right into a 115 volt wall surface outlet (chargers above around 65 amps usually require a 20 amp circuit, therefore check). Several of the smaller units are unregulated, and simply have actually a fixed voltage output, prefer the chargers that old. These often tend to take longer to charge, and also should it is in avoided as soon as possible. Smaller amp capacities are appropriate for smaller sized batteries, choose motorcycle, ATV, etc., or electronic and also security form applications in the 1.3 come 12 amp hour range. They also can be used for maintenance on larger batteries. A medium amp output 12 volt charger would be in the selection of 20 come 50 amps or so, and also be provided for many applications using around 100 amp hrs of battery and also up, or applications v a continuous amp load (power supply application). For a power supply kind situation, the constant draw need to be a low percent of the charger preferably amp capacity, to save the charger native going earlier into the rise or mass stage, or the charger should have selectability for the power supply or "battery through load" mode. Bigger units in the 12 volt charger models are around 55 come 90 amps output. These are provided in large amp hour battery banks, or applications desiring much faster recharge time (possibly in ~ the expense of best battery life). Periodically the bigger units are supplied where a generator is the AC power source, and generator run time is a consideration.
many battery manufacturers recommend sizing the charger at around 25% of the battery volume (ah = amp hour capacity). Thus, a 100 ah 12 volt battery would take around a 25 amp 12 volt charger (or less). Bigger chargers might be provided to decrease fee time, however may to decrease battery life. Smaller chargers room fine for lengthy term floating, e.g. A 1 or 2 amp "smart charger" deserve to be provided for battery maintain between greater amp cycle use, yet would be inefficient or burn up if provided to mass charge large capacity, deeply discharged batteries.
For much more information, or 12 volt charger application certain recommendations, email united state or contact the tech line.