Langdon Clemens

Langdon Clemens was the first-born kid – and the only son – born come Sam and also Olivia Clemens. He to be born prematurely top top Nov. 7‚ 1870‚ and also continued to it is in weak and sickly throughout his brief life. He died of diphtheria ~ above June 2‚ 1872‚ at the period of just 19 months.

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Olivia Susan Clemens

Olivia Susan Clemens‚ called “Susy” by her family‚ was the second child and the earliest of 3 daughters. Born march 19‚ 1872‚ Susy was a baby as soon as Langdon died‚ and also after his fatality both parents doted ~ above Susy. Your close attachment to her remained significant throughout her youth and also young adulthood. She to be a precocious child‚ and Clemens composed that even as a little child she had big thoughts. Clemens and also Olivia maintained a record of countless of the startling and also humorous comments made by Susy and also her younger sister‚ Clara‚ in a document called “The Children’s’ Record: A record of the small foolishnesses the Susie and also ‘Bay’ Clemens respectable 1876 – 1885”. Note Twain documents Susy’s comments around prayer‚ and also about an excellent and poor behavior. Susy flourished to love writing‚ theater and also music.


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All three Clemens girls were taught in ~ home. Livy carried out most the the lessons at first‚ but later to work tutors and governesses come teach reading‚ writing‚ history‚ arithmetic‚ literature and science. Clemens want them to review German books prior to English publications – his factor being the they would discover English no matter what‚ and it would be easier for them to discover other languages while they to be young. Olivia employed a German nurse who always conversed v the kids in German therefore they might practice your skills. The girls also studied piano‚ singing and social dancing. All these an abilities were meant of young upper middle-class women.

As a teenager Susy was at risk to bouts the depression and other illness‚ which minimal some of she activities. When she to be 13‚ Susy started writing a biography of she father‚ incorporating family stories‚ letter he had written‚ articles around him and her very own thoughts around her father. Lot of Susy’s creating is included in mark Twain’s autobiographical writings‚ where he preserves she grammar and spelling and also reflects top top her version of events. (Today Susy’s words have the right to be check out in a stunning children’s version of her book called The Extraordinary mark Twain (According to Susy) by Barbara Kerley.) The kids entertained themselves and also family girlfriend with gamings of charades and acted out their favorite stories. They turned their father’s The Prince and the Pauper right into a stage play in i m sorry Susy play a starring role. Susy herself composed a play dubbed The Love chase that she and her sisters and also friends carry out in the drawing room of the house.

Susy Clemens gone into Bryn Mawr College outside of Philadelphia in the autumn of 1890 but did not stay there long. Historians have speculated top top the factors for she departure‚ but the the strongest is most likely that of being separated from she family during trying times. Both her grandmothers died that fall‚ and also the girl were an especially close to Livy’s mother. The emotional loss‚ and also the family’s worsening jae won status‚ space thought to be the main reasons Susy went back home.

In June 1891 mark Twain’s invest in the Paige typesetting device was pull close failure‚ and also his posting company‚ Charles Webster and also Company‚ was struggling. The household closed increase the house in Hartford and spent the much better part that the next four years in Europe. During this time‚ Susy concentrated her initiatives on ending up being an opera singer‚ however that‚ too‚ was unsuccessful. Once Clemens was compelled to go on a round-the-world lecture tour in order to raise money and pay turn off his debts in the summer the 1895 Susy did not go. She stayed in Elmira‚ N.Y.‚ v her mothers’ family and also her youngest sister‚ Jean.

Before the family was reunited a year later‚ Susy fell ill through spinal meningitis and also died at your Hartford home prior to her mom was able to return to be through her. She died Aug. 18‚ 1896‚ at the period of 24. Her household never went back to the Hartford home to live‚ and also it was marketed in 1903. Their damaged hearts would certainly never totally recover.


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More about Clara Langdon Clemens

Clara was much more adventurous than her larger sister and more prone to mishaps‚ breaking she ankle if sledding on the steep slope whereby the Hartford home sits. Together a young woman‚ she accompanied she parents on your round-the-world expedition in 1895-96. Clara’s mine Father: note Twain is largely came to with describing their travels on the lecture tour. Clara to be a well pianist and likewise performed as a singer. Her wishes of becoming an opera star were never fulfilled‚ yet she had actually a rather successful career together a recital soloist.

Clara was the daughter who discovered it simplest to role independently of she family‚ and longed to rest away and also start her own life. After Susy’s death‚ Clara found herself in the emotionally draining position of keeping the family members together. She mother’s health was declining and her younger sister‚ Jean‚ suffered from epilepsy. Both were under doctor’s assignment to avoid stress or excitement. Clara helped nurse castle both‚ yet was not permitted to tell either of the rather status.

Sam Clemens‚ who was not permitted to spend much time with his wife during her illness‚ and also was unequipped to treatment for Jean’s needs‚ was practically no aid to Clara in ~ all. After she mother’s death‚ Clara suffered an emotionally collapse and spent some time away from she family. She longed to begin a career for herself that did not rely on she fathers’ surname for success. She spent her time between traveling for performances and also at home with she father managing household affairs.

Clara to be the just Clemens boy to endure their father. In 1909‚ she married Russian pianist‚ composer‚ conductor Ossip Gabrilowitsch. With each other they had one daughter‚ Nina. Later in life‚ she occasionally sang on her husband’s concert tours and also for fundraising concert to advanced money for mark Twain historic sites.

Among these to be the mark Twain Memorial, the predecessor organization to The note Twain house & Museum. She shared family furnishings and also her storage of farming up in the home with the early stewards the the house.

After she husband’s fatality in 1936 Clara married an additional Russian musician‚ Jacques Samoussoud‚ and also spent her last years living in southern California. She passed away Nov. 19‚ 1962‚ in ~ the age of 88.

Nina Gabrilowitsch‚ who died in 1966 in ~ the period of 55‚ had no children‚ therefore there are no direct descendants of Samuel L. Clemens.


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Jean love wildlife and being outdoors. Together a teenager and also young adult she to be what this particular day would be called an pet rights activist. She join the Humane society and made donations to similar organizations throughout the family’s numerous travels. She loved horseback riding‚ and as an adult longed for a vocation and resource of revenue of her own to make her an ext independent.

In recent years‚ scholar Laura Skandera-Trombley and also Karen Lystra have performed research that offers a an ext rounded picture of her quick life. In 1891‚ once the family members packed up because that Europe‚ Clara and also Susy were practically adults‚ with careers in mind. In ~ that suggest Jean was only 11‚ and still had much of she childhood left.

Most mark Twain scholars note Susy’s fatality in august 1896 as the suggest at i m sorry the resides of the households changed‚ however Jean was diagnosed through epilepsy 5 months prior to Susy’s death‚ and also this news was also a vast blow. Jean to be 15‚ and also she was not able to suffer the idyllic teenage years her sisters had enjoyed. While in Europe the family sought out medical professionals to treat Jean in England‚ Sweden‚ Germany‚ and Switzerland‚ but continuous travel additionally took that toll.

Jean’s illness had durations of remission and also periods once she would certainly have constant grand mal seizures. She was an alleged to be retained calm: The conventional clinical wisdom of the work dictated the excitement and also worry do the seizures an ext frequent. She was maintained under continuous supervision by she parents; Livy stayed with Jean night and day once she was having actually her “spells.”

Few scholars point out the impact this continuous stress in caring because that Jean placed on her mother’s own declining health. There was social stigma neighboring epilepsy‚ and also sufferers were frequently ostracized. It to be Livy who insisted that Jean be consisted of in as many family and also social activities as her health would allow. Her mother and father both assumed that by gift vigilant they can hold off the seizures.

Jean was prescribed fresh air and exercise‚ such together horseback riding‚ i m sorry she loved. She carved elegant gloves boxes and chests ~ the studying the craft as component of she treatment‚ and constantly hoped that if she could get healthy sufficient she can make a modest income from she art.

She was kept on a sedative and also a strict diet that limited meat and also sweets. Once her mommy died and also Clara suffered her own emotional breakdown‚ Jean’s treatment was left to she father and his staff. He to be unable to keep the level of care she had actually received from she mother‚ and also Jean spent many of she last year separated from her father‚ life in sanitariums and treatment centers thought to be the best choice for her health.

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In the fall of 1909 Clemens ultimately woke up and also realized he and Clara required to take complete responsibility for Jean’s care‚ and she went back to live through her dad at his home in Redding‚ Conn. In the last few months of she life Jean reconciled with her father and worked as his personal secretary. She passed away of an apparent heart attack‚ the result of a seizure‚ on Christmas Eve‚ 1909. She was 29.