The Moon has constantly loomed end us. As modern technology advanced and rockets gained bigger, it ended up being a present of strength to see which country could make it over there first. Little did the world know just how many difficulties they would face prior to they ever before made that there. In this article, us take a look in ~ those battles – and how many countries have actually to be to the Moon.

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The science of gaining to the Moon

Our Moon averages a distance of 238,900 miles (384,472 kilometers) far from the Earth. To placed that in perspective, you could fit an tremendous 30 Earths in that substantial span.

The very first unmanned missions to the Moon were one-way trips, yet scientists still had actually to crack the password of getting there. The Earth’s heaviness pulls objects under at a speed of 9.8 m/s². In contrast, that very same object have to travel 25,000 miles every hour (40,000 kilometers per hour) to make it into orbit.

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Scene in ~ the trip operations director’s console in the Mission Control facility during the Apollo 6 unmanned room flight. (Image credit: NASA)

Once in orbit, the handmade needs another push to break totally free of our orbit and head come the Moon. Let’s no forget the an innovation required come land safe on the Moon once there.

When planning a manned pilgrimage to the Moon, scientists had to devise a means to gain astronauts safely there and back. In enhancement to the steps above, astronauts likewise had to be able to similarly leave the Moon’s surface and also make it back to Earth.

Once back in earth’s orbit, the spacecraft had actually to reenter the atmosphere at just the right angle. As well steep, and also the craft would crash. Also gradual, and also it would bounce ago into space. Also after start the atmosphere, the ship needs to survive temperatures of 2,700 °F (1,480 °C) led to by wait resistance.

The space Race

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The space Race. (Image credit: Tdadamemd ~ above Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 3.0)

Space exploration became a hot topic after people War II and led come a battle between superpowers to reach our the next celestial neighbor.

The gyeongju to the Moon took facility stage in the 1950s, v both the united States and the Soviet Union vying to be the first to touch down on lunar soil. When the Soviet Union was the first to send a satellite and a man right into space, several calamities ended their wishes of setup foot on the Moon’s surface.

It would ultimately be the United says who achieved success in putting male on the Moon.

The U.S. Apollo Program

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President Kennedy announced the score of sending out a person to the moon. (Image credit: “John Kennedy’s Goal” by NASA APPEL understanding Services on Flickr CC BY-NC 2.0)

John F. Kennedy asserted in 1961 the the United says would put a man on the Moon through the finish of the decade. This statement set about a series of occasions that led to the Apollo program, designed come do just that.

To get man safely to the Moon, engineers and scientists occurred the Saturn V rocket. The Saturn V packed enough punch to acquire through earth atmosphere and also escape that is orbit.

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A cutaway illustration that the Saturn V Rocket. (Image credit: NASA)

The Apollo spacecraft needed to do an ext than just escape the Earth. It had to take trip all the way to the Moon, floor on the surface, and also travel ago to ours planet. A command mobile and a lunar module were subsequently designed that astronauts would usage for those purposes.

The program met v disaster on January 27th, 1967, when the Apollo 1 command module captured fire and the 3 astronauts on board lost their resides as a result. It would take nearly two years before the Apollo regime would resume manned missions.

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Close-up watch of Apollo 11 Astronaut foot and footprint in lunar soil. (Image credit: NASA)

Fortunately, top top July 16th, 1969, the United states successfully ended up being the very first country to put guys on the Moon together Neil Armstrong uttered those famed words, “That’s one tiny step for a man, one large leap because that mankind.”

What walk Astronauts perform While ~ above the Moon?

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Astronaut Schmitt collection lunar rake samples. (Image credit: NASA)

Once ~ above the Moon, astronauts performed several activities. These include collecting lunar material, acquisition photographs, and placing equipment to measure things prefer seismic activity and solar wind composition.

During Apollo 14, astronaut Alan Shepherd even took a moment to play some golf. He released a ball for “miles and also miles,” as Shepherd himself placed it.

How lengthy Does It take it To obtain to the Moon?

For the Apollo 11 astronauts, the trip to the Moon took around three work to reach lunar orbit, and also due to a series of checks, took an additional 24 hrs to reach the surface. The craft needed to travel slow sufficient to get recorded in the Moon’s orbit and also not paris off right into space.

When the new Horizons craft launched in 2015 to head every the way to Pluto and beyond, it provided the Moon’s orbit to slingshot more into space. Provided that this handmade was just passing through the Moon, the made the pilgrimage in simply eight hours.

How Many human being Have to be to the Moon?

After Apollo 11, the Apollo regime would go forth and land 5 much more spacecraft on the Moon. Each mission had three astronauts, with two diminish in the lunar module to the Moon’s surface.

Simple mathematics dictates the the unified States has put a complete of 12 males on the Moon. Surprisingly, come date, no other country has sent a manned spacecraft to the Lunar surface.

When to be the last Manned Moon Landing?

Although NASA had actually plans to send more manned rockets come the Moon through the Apollo program, Apollo 17 was the critical mission to bring man come its surface. Budget cuts would certainly ultimately end the program.

Apollo 17 safe touched under on the Moon’s surface ar on December 7th, 1972. That was likewise the only mission to have actually a geologist onboard to examine Lunar rock and also soil formations an ext thoroughly.

How many Countries have actually Landed a Spacecraft on the Moon?

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Moon Landing Sites. (Image credit: Achituv top top Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 4.0)

In a heated fight with one another, the unified States and the Soviet Union seek to it is in the very first to with the Moon.

After a series of failed attempts, the Soviet Union was the very first country to land an unmanned spacecraft top top the Moon’s surface ar with your Luna 9 rocket. The United says would follow 5 months later with unmanned spacecraft Surveyor 1.

Both countries would go on to land several much more spacecraft ~ above the Moon, including the manned flights of the Apollo program. Apollo 17 to be the U.S.’s last Lunar landing in 1972, with the Soviet Union landing unmanned craft until 1976.

In 2013, China make the first of three effective unmanned landings ~ above the Lunar surface. One of their craft became the an initial to land on the far side of the Moon.

Here’s a brief rundown of what these nations have accomplished:

CountrySuccessful Moon Landings
United States11, consisting of 6 manned missions
Soviet Union (Russia)8
China3

Both Israel and also India have actually attempted to land unmanned spacecraft on the Moon, but their missions finished in failure.

Which countries Have an are Programs Today?

At the time of writing, 72 different countries have some kind of room agency in existence. 14 that those nations have the ability to launch a rocket into space.

Seven agencies are equipped to send and also land spacecraft on various other celestial bodies.

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Only three countries, the unified States, Russia, and China have actually the capability to launch manned rockets into space.