George Washington: very first in War, first in Peace, and very first in the hearts of His Countrymen consists of three lessons examining George Washington"s management in the French and also Indian War, in ~ the federal Convention, and also as cook executive. Castle are based upon primary resource documents from George Washington Papers. The papers from Washington"s Letterbooks encompass focus inquiries that might be used in Socratic seminars, cooperative learning, individual and also group work.
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In preparation, teachers should review the documents and also suggested readings accompanying each lesson to identify appropriateness for their students. Recognizing that eighteenth-century conventions that grammar, vocabulary, and also spelling may be distracting, teachers may select to check out selected files aloud, and/or usage vocabulary building tasks before reading. Students might likewise transcribe papers into modern-day English. Teacher may likewise wish to refer to Using major Sources before beginning the unit.
Students will certainly be able to:translate primary resource documents in historic context. Explain the characteristics of an excellent leadership. Evaluate Washington"s army leadership and his climb to a position of importance in british America. Explain the determinants that caused the call of the commonwealth Convention and also evaluate Washington"s duty at the Convention. Analyze exactly how Washington together chief executive, management responded to concerns confronting the joined States.
Three to 5 classes
Resources UsedLesson One: class Two: class Three:
Lesson One: Honor and Passion because that Glory: George Washington in the Ohio Valley
This lesson examines means in i m sorry George Washington demonstrated his management abilities together a young British colonial officer. Textbooks make tiny reference come his military career throughout the mid-eighteenth century Anglo-French challenge for empire. The lesson includes a analysis to acquaint students v Washington"s an initial adventures together a army leader and draws top top his letterbooks to discover his duty in the struggle between Britain and France for manage of north America between 1753 and 1758.
Preliminary Activity:collection the stage for the lesson by brainstorming leadership traits. Comment on the features of a good leader. What space the duties of leadership? Record and save college student responses to recommendation at the conclusion that the lesson. Read selections native a textbook or encyclopedia top top the eighteenth-century colonial conflicts in between Britain and also France in north America leading approximately the 7 Years" war (French and Indian War). Study a map of colonial North America ca. 1750. Possibilities include: Why were both Britain and France interested in the Ohio Valley? What English swarms laid insurance claim to the Ohio Valley? Students might read and discuss a second text stating Washington together a military leader. Questions to think about include: How could the Ohio agency of Virginia influence actions bring away by the home of Burgesses concerning the colony"s interest in the Ohio Valley? What to be the prospects because that success the this mission? Why would certainly Washington want to i think command that the mission?
What walk the attend to by policemans under Washington"s command indicate regarding his army leadership?
Divide the class into 5 groups to read various documents revealing Washington"s perspective on the campaign around which the officers of the Virginia Regiment had actually expressed your sentiments. Teams report to the entire course on your readings about the challenges Washington confronted during his campaign in the Ohio Valley. Students should take notes during the team presentations. To express students come the Timeline to assist them ar their reading in a historic context.
Consider such concerns as:What to be the tone of Washington"s reply to the invitation to accept a board of directors under governor Sharpe"s command? What space the factors Washington provides for rejecting the appointment? to what degree would Washington"s reply to branch Sharpe"s offer reflect negative on his military career? What go this letter reveal about Washington"s character?
Consider such inquiries as:Why would Washington wish to serve under basic Braddock as a volunteer? Would business under basic Braddock boost Washington"s military career? Under what conditions would Washington serve? Why carry out you think basic Braddock would certainly agree come Washington"s inquiry for special privileges? What go the letter to wilhelm Bird reveal about Washington"s motives for serving under general Braddock?
Consider such concerns as:according to Washington, what to be the factor for the British defeat at the hands of a smaller sized French and Indian force? just how does Washington describe the actions of the brothers regulars in the battle? What to be the after-effects of the brother defeat?
Consider such questions as:exactly how does Washington respond come accusations against him? how does Washington safeguard himself? What is the ton of the letter? how does Virginia governor Dinwiddie respond?
Consider such inquiries as:What is Washington"s assessment of the case on the frontier in his letter to Virginia branch Dinwiddie? just how does Washington explain the autumn of ft Duquesne come Virginia branch Fauquier? What credit does Washington offer to his troops during the long project to dislodge the French native the Ohio Valley? how does the british victory impact relations with the Indians?
Culminating Activities:comment on how Washington thrived in coming to be a prominent number in the Virginia militia. What threats was Washington willing to take in bespeak to achieve recognition? What leadership characteristics did he demonstrate during the 1753-54 expedition? In the 1754-58 campaign? What advice would you have provided Washington if you had served together his adjutant during the campaigns against the French in the Ohio Valley? i think the duty of a member of the house of Burgesses and draft a resolution recognizing Washington"s business to Virginia in between 1753 and 1758. Review leadership traits indigenous the earlier brainstorming activity. Go Washington exemplify these qualities? Explain.
Extension Activitiesto compare Washington"s letter to Virginia governor Dinwiddie throughout the Ohio Valley projects with his letters to the continent Congress throughout the American revolution regarding the failure to administer adequate supplies and monetary assistance for the military. What to be the basis for Washington"s objections of the Virginia governor and also House of Burgesses during the campaigns versus the French in the Ohio Valley? exactly how did Washington react to the failure of the continental Congress come adequately supply his forces during the American Revolution? What similarities execute you check out in Washington"s letters to governor Dinwiddie and in his later on chastisements that the continent Congress? just how do these letter reflect ~ above Washington as a military leader? A military leader is often dubbed upon to deal with desertion within his command. Just how did Washington take care of deserters during the Ohio valley campaigns? to compare this with Washington"s disciplinary actions during the American Revolution. Search on deserters and pick from letters matching to the dates of Washington"s campaigns, 1754-58 and 1775-83.
Lesson Two: The Happy development of our Affairs: George Washington and the U.S. Constitution
This great addresses George Washington"s leadership in forging a new government for the United states after the rest from England in 1776. The historical period covered by the files in the lesson varieties from a few days after ~ the declaration of self-reliance in 1776, come late may 1790, as soon as Rhode Island ended up being the critical of the thirteen nests to ratify the new Constitution. The lesson offers Washington"s own words to highlight the occasions leading to the establishment of our nationwide government, and the critical roles he play throughout that process.
1. In bespeak to inspection George Washington"s concerns around the weaknesses of the write-ups of Confederation and the revolt recognized as Shays"s Rebellion, divide the class into six teams of students, and also ask each team to read and highlight vital passages from excerpts of one of six documents:
Consider such concerns as:What proof of economic problems amongst the says is watched in the letters? What is the nature the the "commotions" come which Washington consistently refers? What influence does Washington think Shays"s Rebellion will have actually on the picture of the United states in foreign countries? What, together reflected in his own words, is Washington"s an individual view the this domestic crisis?
Students deserve to prepare a team presentation to share excerpts that their paper with your classmates. Each group should report in turn, according to the day of your correspondence. Ar a huge timeline ~ above the board, and ask one member that each group to compose a an essential phrase from their letter that catches George Washington"s growing sense of alarm and also exasperation about developments in Massachusetts. Students need to take notes during the presentations.
2. George Washington play a key role in the drafting of the structure of the joined States. In order come investigate just how deeply connected he was in the political and also philosophical development of the document, divide students again into six groups, and distribute come each team excerpts of one of six documents:
Consider such concerns as:come whom was the document written? What role, if any, walk this correspondent beat in the American Revolution? What to be the person"s relationship to Washington? What is Washington"s watch of the commonwealth convention to be organized in Philadelphia beginning in might 1787? What go he urge must take place there? just how does Washington characterize the proceedings that the Convention native his vantage suggest as an eyewitness to the events? What proof exists that the well known compromises that emerged there? What does Washington"s correspondence reveal concerning the battle in each of the says over the ratification the the Constitution?
Students deserve to report out vital passages from your group"s document, presenting the product according to chronological order. Students need to take notes throughout the presentations, and also write a review of Washington"s unique duty as a participant and commentator throughout the writing and ratification that the constitution of the united States.
Ask each college student to read Letter indigenous George Washington to Marquis de Lafayette, June 3, 1790. After reading the letter, students have the right to write one essay recounting the events of 1785-90 that were illuminated in the lesson activities. They must compare and also contrast George Washington"s attitude about the future that the United says at different points throughout those fifteen years.
Discuss or job an excerpt from George Washington to Congress, November 19, 1794, in which that sets down his watch of the prominence of the U.S. Constitution.What walk Washington"s native say come his contemporaries about the development of the American republic? What applications execute his words have actually for the present generation that Americans?
Lesson Three: Integrity and Firmness is all I have the right to Promise: The Washington Presidency
This lesson addresses George Washington"s leadership as chairman of the united States. The papers in the lesson variety from a few days before his inauguration through his presidency and includes one letter indigenous retirement that summarizes foreign policy issues between the joined States and also the French Republic. The records explore several key issues throughout the management that Washington emphasize in his Farewell resolve of September 19, 1796.
Refer to textbook account of Washington"s management and perform the accomplishments and unresolved worries of his presidency.
1. Divide the class into 4 groups and assign each one of the following topics: commonwealth Union, political Factions, Whiskey Rebellion, and Permanent Alliances.
2. Functioning in groups, college student read and discuss Washington"s views on every topic as revealed in his correspondence.
Group 1 - federal Union
Consider such inquiries as:just how is the American nation guided by divine providence? according to Washington, why is the United says unique among nations that the world? exactly how does government ideal serve the understand of the people? What space the feel of Southerners towards the nationwide government? according to Washington, what factors are responsible for these attitudes? What pertains to does Washington express regarding future follow to the excise tax on whiskey?
Group 2 - politics Factions
Consider such concerns as:according to Washington, should differences of opinion be placed aside in the attention of unity? exactly how do political determinants obstruct the features of government? Why walk Washington feel the the nation will be take it asunder by political factions? follow to Washington, what duty have gazettes (newspapers) played in fostering discord? What is the ton of Washington"s letter come Jefferson?
Group 3 - Whiskey Rebellion
For extr evidence explore:
Consider such questions as:Why does Washington believe it is vital for the government to act? according to Washington, what room the results of acquisition no action? What is Washington referring to once he claims "we may bid adieu come all government in this Country, other than Mob and also Club Govt."? In Washington"s view, as soon as a legislation is pass by the congress what is the responsibility of citizens? follow to Washington, to what level was citizen Edmund Genet, the French ambassador, responsible for the discontent in western Pennsylvania?
Group 4 - irreversible Alliances
Consider such concerns as:Why is Washington pertained to over the outbreak of battle in Europe? Why walk Washington think there is a require for prompt action? Why did Washington feel neutrality to be the wisest course of action? according to Washington, to be the Proclamation of Neutrality a violation that the Franco-American alliance? Why would Washington recommend the country to "steer clear of long-term alliances?" In your opinion, was this great advice in the 1790s? would you think about it a wise plan in today"s world? Explain.
For added evidence on Washington"s admonition come avoid irreversible alliances, search on Genet (Citizen Edmund Genet, the French Ambassador to the united States).
3. Review George Washington"s September 17, 1796, taking leave Address for sections the relate to the object your group investigated.
4. Prepare a report come the course explaining Washington"s see on the topic under investigation. What advice walk Washington offer to the nation? Why?
Write an essay occurring one topic that Washington disputed in his Farewell address and define how his comments to be either consistent with or diverged from policy statements during his administration.
Today, the warning about political parties and "entangling" alliances are the two issues most typically referred come in the bye Address. Check out sections from the Farewell deal with that relate to both these issues. I think the duty of a modern television journalist and prepare a news program relating these concerns to the current day.
What are the paramount worries included in Washington"s farewell Address? native Washington"s perspective, how are domestic and foreign policy worries interrelated?
"Chart the clues Washington renders in his Farewell resolve under the headings, personal Reflections, Admonitions, and also Recommendations." What walk Washington have to say about each of these issues.
What central issues of the day were not included in Washington"s Farewell? Why carry out you think they to be omitted? Explain.
Research how later generations have actually viewed Washington"s taking leave Address.
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Assess college student participation in discussions and also other classroom tasks as well as products resulting from culminating activities according to criteria that you point out or develop in discussion with the class.