Neurons space cells that have actually been adjusted to bring nerve impulses. A usual neuron has actually a cell body containing a nucleus, one or an ext branching filaments dubbed dendrites which command nerve impulses towards the cell body and one lengthy fibre, an axon, that carries the impulses away from it. Plenty of axons have actually a sheath of fat material referred to as myelin surrounding them. This increases the rate at i beg your pardon the nerve impulses travel along the nerve (see chart 14.1).

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Diagram 14.1 - A motor neuron

The cell human body of neurons is usually situated in the brain or spinal cord if the axon extends the totality distance to the organ that that supplies. The neuron transporting impulses from the spinal cord to the hind foot or tail of a horse, because that example, have the right to be several feet long. A nerve is a bundle of axons.

A sensory neuron is a nerve cell the transmits impulses indigenous a feeling receptor such as those in the eye or ear come the mind or spinal cord. A motor neuron is a nerve cell that transmits impulses indigenous the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland. A relay neuron connect sensory and also motor neurons and is found in the mind or spinal cord (see diagrams 14.1 and also 14.2).

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Diagram 14.2 - The relationship between sensory, relay and motor neurons


Connections between Neurons

The connection between surrounding neurons is referred to as a synapse. The two nerve cells carry out not in reality touch here for over there is a microscopic room between them. The electric impulse in the neurone before the synapse stimulates the manufacturing of chemicals dubbed neurotransmitters (such together acetylcholine), which space secreted into the gap.

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The neurotransmitter chemistry diffuse throughout the gap and also when they contact the membrane the the following nerve cell they wake up a new nervous impulse (see diagram 14.3). After the impulse has passed the chemical is destroyed and the synapse is ready to get the next nerve impulse.

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Diagram 14.3 - A nerve and magnification the a synapse




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