"The Sun, through all the planets revolving around it, and also depending ~ above it, deserve to still ripen a bunch the grapes as though it had nothing else in the world to do." ~ Galileo


You are watching: A star turns into energy in the process of

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Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) average Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 work escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts size (Vo): -26.8 surface ar Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion years

In the core of the sun hydrogen is being converted right into helium. This is dubbed nuclear fusion. It takes 4 hydrogen atoms to fuse right into each helium atom. Throughout the process some the the mass is converted right into energy. mass of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU massive of 1 that atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) amounts to 1.67x10-27kgs The difference between the massive of 4 H atoms and also 1 that atom is 0.02862 AMU i m sorry is only 0.71% the the initial mass. This small portion of the fixed is converted right into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) of H are converted come He, only 2.8x10-3 grams the the massive is converted to energy: exactly how much power is produced from converting together a tiny amount that mass? We have the right to calculate by utilizing Einstein"s famous formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to keep a 60-watt light bulb shining because that over 100 years! The sunlight has various layers with different properties, these layers space composed of product that is about 75% hydrogen and also 25% helium by mass. Just put, the sun is a an excellent ball of gas, hot sufficient to light in every tier. In the really innermost component of the Sun, called its core, the temperature is about 15 million Kelvins, the density is 150 times that of water, and the press is over 200 exchange rate times greater than atmospheric pressure below on Earth. This heavy, sweltering ar is whereby the Sun"s energy is created via a procedure known together thermonuclear fusion. While combination is daunting to mimic ~ above Earth, the core of the Sun and other stars is a perfect environment for it. Here, the temperatures room high sufficient for hydrogen nuclei come smash together and kind helium nuclei, releasing tremendous amounts of power in various forms. Energy created in the type of irradiate keeps bouncing roughly inside the Sun, together though the sun were made entirely of mirrors. A bit of light have the right to take more than 30,000 years to reach the surface and also escape! power in the type of tiny particles dubbed neutrinos, however, deserve to travel directly out that the Sun and also into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on earth measure the consistent wash of this tiny, fast-moving particles. The evident visual magnitude of the sunlight is -26.8, making the appear around 10 billion (10,000,000,000) times as bright as the next brightest star, Sirius. The pure magnitude the the Sun, the magnitude it would have at a distance of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we have the right to see with the naked eye, over there is just one, alpha Centauri, through a comparable absolute size to the Sun. Most of the remainder are intrinsically much brighter. light takes about 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the sunlight to the Earth. The typical distance to the earth from the facility of the sun is around 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance well-known as an expensive unit (AU). There room over 63,000 AU in 1 light year. 1 AU is around 0.000016 light year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or about 280,000 AU.


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task on the solar surface, photograph by Brad Snowder.